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By Leo Kriese. 2023
This book offers a deeper understanding of digitisation and innovative technologies in the financial sector. It focuses on a digital…version of sovereignly created money that is accessible to the broad public. This central bank digital currency (CBDC) raises several questions. Will CBDC lead to public surveillance of the citizens? What is digital money in the legal sense? And what is the difference to already existing forms of digital money? This book addresses main questions associated with central bank digital currency by providing background information as well as in-depth analyses. The book introduces a basic understanding of innovative technologies such as the distributed ledger technology. It shows how a system of money can be created and what roles each participant has. Taking an economic point of view, the book demonstrates the monetary policy in the euro area and examines how a digital version of public money could affect the transmission mechanism as well as the financial stability. Could CBDC lead to a "digital bank run"? Could it replace the established financial intermediaries such as banks? What would that mean to the economy?Mainly, the book focuses on the legal issues of CBDC. Which is the competent institution for establishing digital public money? Will digital money change the way of how we handle financial data? Also, the book examines the legal usability of CBDC in the economy. How can digital money based on innovative technologies be transferred in accordance with the law? Can a debtor of a monetary claim flee into the digital currency? This book addresses the public and private sector participants as well as the legislators on how to handle CBDC. Most important, the book addresses everyone interested in digitisation and innovative financial technology who wants to gain a deeper understanding of the next big evolvement of money.
The global energy economy is undergoing a profound transformation, yielding several pivotal objectives. Foremost among these is mitigating greenhouse gas…emissions and toxic pollutants. Another essential goal involves promoting more sustainable economies, thereby curbing material consumption and reducing our reliance on resource extraction. Further priorities include fostering energy security and economic resilience by reducing dependence on external energy sources. All these aims overlap in one common policy: accelerating the renewable energy capacity deployment. Complementing this paradigm shift is the complete electrification of economic activities and households, resulting in the need to incentivize green electricity generation. In this context, this book undertakes a comprehensive exploration of the regulatory framework underpinning the advancement of green electricity. After reviewing the political and economic dimensions, it offers an exhaustive analysis of ongoing developments in four legal domains: The WTO, EU, Germany, and Turkey. Furthermore, the book presents a legal analysis of the intricate interplay between the WTO and EU law coupled with the German and Turkish models. It focuses on the most topical and relevant issues, including the effect of the ongoing energy crisis on state aid for green electricity in the EU; WTO case law on local content requirement components of the promotion schemes; the intricate legal, economic, and political challenges that accompany Germany’s Energiewende and its phasing out of coal and nuclear energy; and Turkey’s regulatory endeavors to bolster its energy self-sufficiency strategy. Following a thorough examination encompassing theoretical, regulatory, and comparative aspects, the book moves beyond the applicable legal framework to make concrete proposals on the future design of green electricity promotion in Germany and Turkey so as to facilitate a rapid but socially equitable energy transition by incentivizing economic efficiency.
This Palgrave Pivot presents the first in-depth study of the pioneering Kansas Blue Sky Act of 1911, the first effort…in American financial history to regulate the sale of securities in the US. Though offering a balanced examination of critiques of the legislation as a barrier to individual liberty, interstate commerce, and economic growth, the author challenges the prevailing view of the Kansas Act as a complete anomaly, instead exploring sensitively what ‘blue sky laws’ can tell us about small-town market values during the nineteenth-century. Drawing on contemporary accounts of rural commerce and popular stereotypes about rural society, the author takes a cultural-historical approach to the politics of regulation and government intervention in the economy. Situating the Blue Sky Act in the broader context of Progressive Era reforms, the author demonstrates how distinctive patterns of commerce and finance in the self-contained, miniature economies of mid-continental rural communities were often at odds with the “caveat emptor” (buyer beware) standard of American law and commerce in larger markets. Instead the author explores how paternalistic assumptions about individual investment decisions led to the creation of the Act, yet how it was doomed to failure in the context of emerging national stock markets, changing attitudes that regarded stock primarily as a vehicle for trade and the market boom of the 1920s. The book also explores how the initial acceptance of the Kansas model in other states and its later rejection provides a lens through which to examine the fluidity of notions of individual liberty during this period of fast economic and social change. This book will be of interest to researchers working in American financial history, as well as legal history and securities law.
By Dennis Bock. 2023
Anhand von 13 „großen Fällen“, die nach aktuellen und klassischen Entscheidungen der höchstrichterlichen Rechtsprechung gebildet sind und nach den Anforderungen…im Ersten Juristischen Staatsexamen gelöst werden, vermittelt das Werk sowohl examensrelevantes Wissen im strafrechtlichen Pflichtfachbereich als auch die Falllösungstechnik zur Bewältigung strafrechtlicher Klausuren. Es ermöglicht so eine prüfungsnahe Wiederholung und Vertiefung des materiellen Strafrechts, wobei insbesondere Wert darauf gelegt wird, klausurtypische Querverbindungen von Allgemeinem Teil und Besonderem Teil aufzuzeigen. Die vollständig ausformulierten Lösungsvorschläge werden abgerundet durch klausurtaktische Bemerkungen und didaktisch konzipierte Vertiefungshinweise, insbesondere zur klassischen und aktuellen Rechtsprechung (inkl. wichtiger Entscheidungsbesprechungen). Der Band zum Allgemeinen Teil wird ergänzt durch einen zum „Besonderen Teil - Nichtvermögensdelikte“ und einen zum „Besonderen Teil - Vermögensdelikte“. Die Gesamtreihe befähigt zu einer vollständigen, eigenverantwortlichen Examensvorbereitung im materiellen Strafrecht. Sie erscheint nunmehr in vollständig durchgesehener und überarbeiteter Neuauflage inklusive examensorientierter Verarbeitung jüngster höchstrichterlicher Rechtsprechung sowie Studienliteratur.
This open access book examines regulating an environment that has no jurisdiction, is fully anonymous and infinitely vast? Welcome to…the Metaverse, an online virtual reality that is expected to add billions to the global economy. The Metaverse offers a new type of virtual economy with practically endless business opportunities. The question is how to prevent these opportunities from being abused to commit money laundering and finance terrorism (MLFT). This book explores the current European Union legislation designed to prevent MLFT in connection with the Metaverse. It analyses the legislation in relation to the three traditional stages of MLFT: placement, layering and integration. Furthermore, some additional risks specific to the Metaverse are discussed, such as Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) and the high level of anonymity. The book concludes that the current legislation is not suitable for facing the new challenges of the Metaverse. In turn, the book puts forward a novel approach to regulating and enforcing MLFT legislation: using a system of smart assets equipped with AI to prevent and detect MLFT. In addition, it makes recommendations on how to improve the legal framework with regard to the new challenges arising from the Metaverse. Particular attention is given to creating a legal framework that incorporates the use of smart assets and the Internet of Things, in order to provide a safe environment for potential users and society. With a solid background in financial law and technology, the author successfully creates a novel system of regulation and enforcement that is based on the use of automatic enforcement, whilst keeping sufficient legal safeguards in place for potential Metaverse users. This book will be of interest to anyone interested in the Metaverse. Whether you want to regulate it or open your own virtual business, it’s a must-read!
By Alara Yazıcıoğlu, Xavier Oberson. 2023
This book has the merit of being the first book analysing different aspects of data taxation from a wide perspective…encompassing not only tax law but also other significant issues related to data, such as data protection and economic inefficiencies. The main aim is to provide data-specific solutions to data-driven problems. In the midst of a number of critical issues and a great deal of uncertainty currently reigning in the field, the authors attempt to put forward easy-to-implement and efficient proposals on the basis of an interdisciplinary analysis. The core idea of this book consists of segregating the utilisation of data into four different yet interdependent steps and constructing the tax law analysis on top of these four corner stones. Step one, occurring in the generation and collection phases of the data’s life cycle, comprises ‘the digital barter’ and other collection of data. Step two, taking place during the processing and analytics phases of the data’s life cycle, consists of microwork. Step three, situated in the storage, processing, analytics and use phases of the data’s life cycle, encompasses aggregation and internal use of data. Step four, materialising during the distribution and use phases of the data’s life cycle, covers sale of data, transfer of data and granting the right to use a database. The main issues occurring in each of the four steps are analysed separately, and yet interdependently, with an emphasis on international tax law. The book also comprises a VAT analysis; suggestion of a new type of tax, namely «data collection tax»; and a brief opinion on a potential future «robo-data tax». The subjects explored in this book are of interest for researchers, lawyers as well as tax administrations. Albeit being an academic publication, the developments made in this contribution are also relevant for the general public. After all, data, the youngest intangible, constitute the raw material of the fourth industrial revolution; and their use and taxation affect each and every citizen!
Dieser Praxis-Guide ist ein ungemein hilfreicher Ratgeber, um das komplexe Thema Bildrechte gut verstehen zu können. Zugleich kann das Buch…fallbezogen als Nachschlagewerk im Alltag dienen.Auf Basis der Gesetzeslage (DSGVO, KUG, UrhG, UrhDaG, u.v.m.) erhalten Sie Antworten zu den häufigsten Fragen der rechtskonformen Verwendung von Bildmaterial. Das Buch ist für Nicht-Juristen geschrieben, die im Marketing, der Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, als Fotografen, Blogger oder Bildrechtemanager arbeiten. Im Fokus stehen die typischen Anwendungsfälle der digitalen Publikation von Fotos, Videos, Logos, Animationen, Designs und Grafiken. Mit vielen Bildbeispielen, Praxisfällen, Leitsätzen und Checklisten werden die rechtlichen Fragestellungen einfach und verständlich beantwortet. Kritische Punkte Ihres Handelns werden so für Sie schnell erkennbar.Die dritte Auflage wurde vollständig aktualisiert und erweitert (u.a. Recht auf Vergessenwerden, Fotografie mit Kamera-Drohnen, KI-Bilder, aktuelle höchstrichterliche Entscheidungen zur DSGVO, Urheberrechts-Diensteanbieter-Gesetz, …).Auszug aus dem Inhalt – Know how u.a. zu …Personenfotos veröffentlichenVerwendung von KI-BildernUmgang mit Architektur- und Sachaufnahmen sowie mit geschützten Produkten, Logos, Markennamen und DesignsBilder für Internetpublikationen (Social-Media-Redaktion, Blogs, etc.) Sorgfaltspflichten bei der Verwendung fremder BilderDie passende Lizenz erwerben sowie Lizenzvergabe mit Creative-Commons-LizenzenOnline-Service mit Muster-Dokumenten (Einwilligungserklärungen, Verträge, …)On top: Testen Sie Ihr Wissen mit Fragen und Antworten zum Buch mit Springer Nature Flashcards.
By Ilja Pavone. 2024
This book reviews the efficacy of Global Health Law, assessing why its legal framework based on the International Health Regulations…did not represent a valid tool in the containment of modern global pandemics such as COVID-19. The book provides an introduction to the international legal framework surrounding epidemics and pandemics and the main global governance issues that have been generated by the COVID-19 outbreak. It highlights the main shortcomings of Global Health Law, while also including practical proposals to improve the WHO’s mechanism to prevent and respond to future disease outbreaks, such as the New Pandemic Treaty. Emphasis is placed on what has not worked in the international, regional and national responses to COVID-19. It is argued that the pandemic has shed light on the weaknesses of global and domestic health law. By identifying legal gaps and providing legal arguments, the book contributes to the historical and conceptual foundation as well as the practical development of international law in the new age of COVID-19, with the ultimate goal of stimulating legal reform in this vital new era. The work will be essential reading for academics, researchers and policy-makers working in International Law, Health Law, Environmental Law, Human Rights Law, Biolaw, and the Law of International Organizations.
Name, Image, and Likeness Policies: Institutional Impact and States Responses (Routledge Research in Public Administration and Public Policy)
By Darrell Lovell, Daniel Mallinson. 2024
This book examines the path that name, image, and likeness (NIL) has taken in the first years of the policy,…how the expansion has led to differing approaches across state and universities, and how administrators in selected states are dealing with the rulemaking power they have. After an introduction contextualising how NIL policies have impacted the administrative approach at institutions, the remaining chapters focus on how NIL has altered the role of compliance offices and administrators tasked with monitoring academic and financial activity in athletic departments. Chapters leverage theories of policy diffusion and implementation to offer context on the topics from administrative and policy perspectives, whilst also examining how entrepreneurs are both using the policies to advance the status of the athletic arms of their institutions while dealing with these compliance struggles. The authors conclude with a discussion of an unsettled policy landscape and whether stricter guidelines are on the horizon. Name, Image, and Likeness Policies will appeal to both scholars studying sport and law, public policy, public administration, state politics, and governance, as well as readers seeking to better understand what impacts NIL is having on the college system, and students connected to major sports such as college football and basketball.
By Nong Hong. 2024
This book explores the U.S.-China maritime relationship, examining the development and implementation of the maritime strategies of both the United…States and China. Delving into the U.S.-China maritime relationship within the global context, the book investigates six key maritime regions: the South China Sea, the Northeast Asia waters (the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea), the Indian Ocean, the South Pacific Ocean, as well as the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Its observations form a comprehensive exploration of these regions and their significance in shaping the dynamics between the two nations, and this analysis reveals that an expanded view is necessary to discover and clearly display the role that these maritime regions currently—and could potentially—play in overarching U.S.-China relations. Examining both the ongoing conflicts and opportunities for cooperation in the global maritime domain between the United States and China, this book will be a valuable resource to students and scholars of international relations, Chinese and U.S. politics, strategic studies, and maritime studies.
By Nicole Rogers and Michelle Maloney. 2024
This book is a collection of speculative judgments that, along with accompanying commentaries, pursue a novel enquiry into how judges…might respond to the formidable and planetary-scaled challenges of the Anthropocene. The book’s contributors –from Australia, Asia, Europe, and the United Kingdom –take up a range of issues: including multispecies justice, the challenges of intergenerational justice, dimensions of postcolonial justice, the potential contribution of AI platforms to the judgment process, and the future of judging and law in and beyond the Anthropocene. The project takes its inspiration from existing critical judgment projects. It is, however, thoroughly interdisciplinary. In anticipating future scenarios, and designing or adapting legal principles to respond to them, the book’s contributors have been assisted by climate scientists with expertise in future modelling; they have benefitted from the experience of fiction writers in future worldbuilding; and they have incorporated elements of the future worlds depicted in various texts of speculative fiction and artworks. The judgments are, of necessity, speculative and hypothetical in their subject matter. Thus, taken together, they constitute a collaborative experiment in creating the inclusive and radical imaginaries of the future common law. The Anthropocene Judgments Project will appeal to critical and sociolegal academics, scholars in the environmental humanities, environmental lawyers, students, and others with interests in the pressing issues of ecology, multispecies justice, climate change, the intersection of AI platforms and the law, and the future of law in the Anthropocene.
Encapsulating Law Reform requires the creation of a discreet space occupied with normative self-generation, self-correction, and self-adaptation in the very…anatomy of law and the architecture of legal systems. This ‘living dynamic trait’ should be a hallmark of the genetic material in the modern-day institution of law. This edited volume sheds light on Law Reform in its domestic, comparative, regional, and international settings. It examines the process of Law Reform and explains the need for a constant appraisal to keep its wheels optimally operational. The book takes a holistic approach to understanding Law Reform and calls for such an approach in the very process of Law Reform. It begins by looking at Law Reform processes from a theoretical perspective. Thereafter, it sheds light on domestic Law Reform processes in civil and common law legal systems. This is followed by a focus on Law Reform at the international level with a critical appraisal of the International Law Commission (ILC), drawing on its performance in international economic and environmental law. Included in this consideration is also the role played in Law Reform by the IMF, World Trade Organization/World Intellectual Property Organization, Multilateral Development Banks, and the African Union Commission on International Law. This volume should appeal to students, serious scholars, policy makers, judges, and the community of national and international lawyers interested in bringing effective reform in the national and international arenas.
By Amitabh Rajan. 2024
This insightful book explores the use and application of ethics in contemporary governance and suggests necessary reforms. Following an interdisciplinary…approach involving the fields of political science, law, economics, sociology, management, and philosophy, this book analyses their applicability and usefulness in everyday practices in governance, covering its five cardinal virtues—prudence, transparency, discourse, justice, and accountability. Highlighting ethical challenges in aspects of status recognition, oppression, empowerment, social care, public financing, environment protection and others in today’s interconnected world, it delves into the dynamics of administrative power in democracies and showcases how the misuse of power can be controlled through a discourse of ethics in law and governance. The book will be useful to the students, researchers and teachers of public administration, philosophy, political Science, corporate ethics, and governance other related social sciences disciplines. The book will also be an indispensable companion to social activists, advocacy groups, journalists and civil society institutions and public service training institutions.
Law, Culture and Identity in Central and Eastern Europe: A Comparative Engagement (Nomos Studies in Law, Culture and Power)
By Cosmin Cercel, Alexandra Mercescu and Mirosław Michał Sadowski. 2024
Mirosław Michał Sadowski is Lecturer at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, Scotland; Affiliated Researcher at the Centre for Global…Studies, Alberta University in Lisbon, Portugal; Postdoctoral Researcher at CEBRAP – Brazilian Center of Analysis and Planning in São Paulo, Brazil; Research Assistant at the Institute of Legal Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, Poland.
This book investigates the relationship between sex and gender under international human rights law, and how this influences the formation…of individual subjects. Combining feminist, queer, and psychoanalytical perspectives, the author scrutinises the sexed/gendered human rights discourse, starting from the assumptions underpinning interpretations of sex, gender, and the related notions of gender identity, sex characteristics, and sexual orientation. Human rights law has so far offered only a limited account of the diversity of sexed/ gendered subjectivities, being based on a series of simplistic assumptions. Namely, that there are only two sexes and two genders; sex is a natural fact and gender is a social construct; gender is the metonymic signifier for women; and gender power relations take the asymmetrical shape of male domination versus female oppression. Against these assumptions, dominative and subordinate postures interchangeably attach to femininities and masculinities, depending on the subjects’ roles, their positionalities, and the situational meanings of their acts. The limits of an approach to gender which is based on rigid binaries are evident in two case studies, on the UN human rights treaty bodies’ vocabulary on medically unnecessary interventions upon intersex children and on the European Court of Human Rights’ narrative on sadomasochism. This examination of the impact of human rights on gendered subjectivities will be of interest to scholars, students, and researchers in international law, gender studies, queer studies, cultural studies, critical race theory, and psychoanalysis.
By Sanjeev Sahni, Poulomi Bhadra. 2023
Dieses Buch bietet einen gezielten und umfassenden Überblick über die Kriminalpsychologie in verschiedenen sozioökonomischen und psychosozialen Kontexten. Es informiert die…Leser über die Rolle der Psychologie in den verschiedenen Aspekten des Strafrechtsprozesses, angefangen von der Untersuchung einer Straftat bis hin zur Rehabilitation oder Wiedereingliederung des Straftäters. Aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse aus Kriminologie und Psychologie werden erörtert, um die Psyche verschiedener Straftäter zu verstehen, wie man mit ihnen während der Ermittlungen und der Verurteilung effektiv interagieren kann und wie man positive Veränderungen in den verschiedenen Phasen des Strafrechtsprozesses - Ermittlungen, Strafverfolgung, Inhaftierung, Rehabilitation - herbeiführen kann, um die Effizienz des Strafvollzugs zu erhöhen und das Vertrauen der Öffentlichkeit in das Justizsystem zu stärken. Das Buch befasst sich eingehend mit den größeren Problemen einer ganzheitlichen Reduzierung des Anstiegs der Kriminalitätsrate und der Anfälligkeit der Gesellschaft. Jedes Kapitel stützt sich auf führende wissenschaftliche Arbeiten westlicher Wissenschaftler auf diesem Gebiet und ergänzt diese Theorien mit Forschungsergebnissen aus südasiatischer Sicht, insbesondere aus dem indischen Strafrechtssystem. Dieses Buch fasst erfolgreich die Grundlagen der kriminalpsychologischen Literatur zusammen, während es gleichzeitig interdisziplinäre Studien über kriminelles Verhalten und Rechtspsychologie einbezieht und die Lücken des Justizsystems sowie Möglichkeiten für alternative Strafvollzugs- und Rehabilitationsprogramme in den provinziellen Diskurs einbringt.
By Rob Hunter, Eva Nanopoulos, Rafael Khachaturian. 2023
This book builds on the recent revival of interest in Marx and Marxism, calling for a renewal and refinement of…Marxist state theory. It aims to provoke and encourage new debates and critiques that build on—but also update and extend—the rich tradition of Marxist analyses of the capitalist state, including the well-known debates of the 1970s. The chapters present a dynamic and diverse constellation of arguments and perspectives on a range of topics, from general re-appraisals of the capitalist state to investigations of contemporary challenges—including digitalisation, the ecological crisis, the coronavirus pandemic, social reproduction, and critical political economy. What they share is a commitment to an understanding of the specifically capitalist character of the modern state and its significance for any serious discussion of the causes of our current age of global catastrophe and the overcoming of capitalist social relations.
By Luc Lavrysen, Maria Ferroni, Giovanni Antonelli, Michael Gerrard, Sara Colangelo, Giancarlo Montedoro, Maurizio Santise. 2023
This book sheds light on the latest trends in environmental law by analyzing some of the main sectors of law,…including administrative law, constitutional law, EU law, US Law, and human rights law. It explores the evolution of these sectors before courts and tribunals from a US-EU perspective and from the perspectives of some of the foremost academics and justices from the major jurisdictions.Supranational and national courts, both in Europe and in the US, have delivered significant environmental judgements in recent years. The corresponding case law reflects how, in many jurisdictions, environmental and climate litigation continues to expand exponentially as a tool to strengthen environmental protection, whether by pushing national governments to be more ambitious or by enforcing existing statutes and regulations.Courts, particularly after the Paris Agreement, are increasingly seeking their own role as an important player in multilevel environmental governance. Courts in both the US and EU are at the forefront of this process and their role in shaping environmental rule of law will be fundamental in the near future.
By Luca Paladini, Maria del Ángel Iglesias Vázquez. 2023
This book offers an in-depth analysis of a fundamental human freedom and a cornerstone of democracy: the Freedom of Religions…or Beliefs (FoRB). The book focuses on the legal protection and promotion of FoRB in Europe because, in this context, exercising this right goes beyond a mere internal positioning in terms of legislation; rather, it is influenced by international and supranational case law, as well as the promotional activities of selected non-state subjects of international law.The content is divided into three sections: Part I on the European Convention of Human Rights, Part II on the EU, and Part III on other international actors. The first two Parts examine FoRB in its systematic aspects and “day-to-day” aspects. In contrast, the third Part highlights the promotional activities carried out by the Holy See, the ILO, the Council of Europe (“beyond the Strasbourg Court”), and the OSCE to promote, recommend or otherwise support it. Overall, the volume highlights how the exercise of FoRB can be ensured via international and supranational legal protection (both normative and judicial) and via promotional activities aimed at encouraging and helping states guarantee tolerance and pluralism in their national legislation.The 16 main chapters offer a broad overview of the topic under investigation. Each contribution can be seen as a stand-alone study and, simultaneously, as a link in a chain of legal analysis that connects multiple FoRB-focused questions.The book offers a valuable tool for all readers with an academic or professional interest in FoRB and those who have to address the issue of how to protect this freedom. It is intended not only for academics who work in the field of law but also for legal practitioners (judges, lawyers, diplomats), human rights advocates, members of religious and spiritual communities, policymakers and students.
This proceedings, HCI-CPT 2023, constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cybersecurity, Privacy and Trust, held as…Part of the 24th International Conference, HCI International 2023, which took place in July 2023 in Copenhagen, Denmark. The total of 1578 papers and 396 posters included in the HCII 2023 proceedings volumes was carefully reviewed and selected from 7472 submissions. The HCI-CPT 2023 proceedings focuses on to user privacy and data protection, trustworthiness and user experience in cybersecurity, multifaceted authentication methods and tools, HCI in cyber defense and protection, studies on usable security in Intelligent Environments. The conference focused on HCI principles, methods and tools in order to address the numerous and complex threats which put at risk computer-mediated human-activities in today’s society, which is progressively becoming more intertwined with and dependent on interactive technologies.