Representing the first scholarly compendium of information in the field, this book provides a synopsis of the scientific literature that is equally useful to new and experienced investigators. Recent research in the use of ketamine for difficult-to-treat depressive disorders and… related conditions is presented, as is an examination of how insights from these studies are forging new conceptual models of the neurobiology of stress-related affective and addictive disorders, and the nature of treatment-resistance. In addition, the book discusses how ketamine's rapid antidepressant effects provide a scientific platform to facilitate innovation in clinical trial design, including patient selection, choice of control group, outcome measures, and dose-optimization. There is surging worldwide interest in the use of ketamine therapy, and this work collects the insights of many of the world's leading researchers in this nascent clinical and scientific field. This book has appeal to researchers (both clinical and basic), clinicians, health care administrators, and patients. Researchers will benefit from an updated discussion of neurobiological mechanisms and hypothesized actions of ketamine in neural circuits. Clinicians benefit from a clear summary of safety and efficacy data, which will permit informed choices regarding the risk-to-benefit ratio for administration of ketamine to patients.