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By Trevor Fetter, J. S. Nelson. 2021
By Eugene Soltes, Trevor Fetter, Grant Wahlquist. 2019
There are numerous restrictions against trading on material, nonpublic information (MNPI)-typically called "insider trading." This note describes the limitations facing…managers and investors as enforced civilly and criminally within the United States.
By Matthew Weinzierl, Jeremy Friedman, Vincent Pons, Kristin Fabbe, Reshmaan Hussam, Alberto Cavallo, Mattias Fibiger. 2017
By Guhan Subramanian. 2019
By Rembrand Koning, Alicia Dadlani. 2022
In December 2018, Susan Tynan, founder and CEO of Framebridge, a four-year-old venture-backed startup that sold online custom framing, formulated…plans for the future. Her vision was to revolutionize the $4 billion industry by making custom framing easy, transparent, and affordable by leveraging digital technology and automation. Early demand for the product was strong, and Framebridge began experimenting in retail. The company built a high-tech, robotics-driven manufacturing plant in Kentucky but struggled to achieve economies of scale. In the first part of this two-part series (B case 723-353), Tynan needed to decide whether to pivot her operations strategy or remain true to the tech-enabled robotics approach in which her backers had invested. Further, she had to determine her vision for retail and how this might impact the business model.
Land Rights, Ethno-nationality and Sovereignty in History (Routledge Explorations in Economic History)
By Stanley Engerman, Jacob Metzer. 2004
The complex relationships between ethno-nationality, rights to land, and territorial sovereignty have long fed disputes over territorial control and landed…rights between different nations, ethnicities, and religions. These disputes raise a number of interesting issues related to the nature of land regimes and to their economic and political implications. The studies drawn together in this key volume explore these and related issues for a broad variety of countries and times. They illuminate the diverse causes of ethno-national land disputes, and the different forms of adjustment and accommodation to the power differences between the contesting groups. This is done within a framework outlined by the editors in their analytical overview, which offers contours for comparative examinations of such disputes, past and present. Providing conceptual and factual analyses of comparative nature and wealth of empirical material (both historical and contemporary), this book will appeal to economic historians, economists, political scientists, sociologists, anthropologists and all scholars interested in issues concerning ethno-nationality and land rights in historical perspective.
By Thimira Amaratunga. 2023
This book will teach you the underlying concepts of large language models (LLMs), as well as the technologies associated with…them. The book starts with an introduction to the rise of conversational AIs such as ChatGPT, and how they are related to the broader spectrum of large language models. From there, you will learn about natural language processing (NLP), its core concepts, and how it has led to the rise of LLMs. Next, you will gain insight into transformers and how their characteristics, such as self-attention, enhance the capabilities of language modeling, along with the unique capabilities of LLMs. The book concludes with an exploration of the architectures of various LLMs and the opportunities presented by their ever-increasing capabilities—as well as the dangers of their misuse. After completing this book, you will have a thorough understanding of LLMs and will be ready to take your first steps in implementing them into your own projects. What You Will Learn Grasp the underlying concepts of LLMsGain insight into how the concepts and approaches of NLP have evolved over the yearsUnderstand transformer models and attention mechanismsExplore different types of LLMs and their applicationsUnderstand the architectures of popular LLMsDelve into misconceptions and concerns about LLMs, as well as how to best utilize them Who This Book Is For Anyone interested in learning the foundational concepts of NLP, LLMs, and recent advancements of deep learning
By Bent Böltener. 2023
In diesem Buch werden die völkerrechtlichen Debatten um die Dekolonialisierung innerhalb der Vereinten Nationen und in der Völkerrechtswissenschaft in den…fünfziger und sechziger Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts anhand des Beispiels Kongo (heutige Demokratische Republik Kongo) aufgearbeitet. Hierbei wird die Geschichte des ressourcenreichen Landes mit der Völkerrechtsgeschichte der Dekolonialisierung verbunden. In den Vordergrund rückt dabei die sog. Dependenztheorie. Diese aus den sechziger und siebziger Jahren stammende Theorie, wonach aus dem Kolonialismus hervorgegangene hierarchische Abhängigkeitsstrukturen eine Entwicklung der neuerdings unabhängigen Entwicklungsländer auch in der postkolonialen Ära begrenzen, wurde im letzten Jahrzehnt in der Völkerrechtsgeschichte aus postkolonialer Perspektive wiederentdeckt. Das Buch zeigt auf, dass die Dependenztheorie als Erklärung für die weiterhin bestehenden vielschichtigen Probleme im Kongo relevant bleibt.
By Jaspreet Sandhu, Francisco Martins, Henriette Holm, Kurt McCammon. 2023
This book provides a comprehensive guide to the latest techniques in female genitourinary and pelvic floor disorders. It features detailed insight into these…conditions along with detailed descriptions of how treatment has changed in recent times for these disorders. The latest methodologies for pharmacological treatment, conservative therapy, surgical techniques, and how to avoid potential complications are discussed. Topics including relevant neurophysiology, measurement of urinary symptoms, pelvic organ prolapse and ureteral reconstruction are covered. Female Genitourinary and Pelvic Floor Reconstruction is a detailed resource detailing the latest developments in the field, making it an ideal resource for all clinicians who encounter these patients in their daily practice.
This book examines the lethal risks faced by police and traffic officers in Aotearoa New Zealand. It tracks lethal risk volume…and type across 134 years of the New Zealand Police/Ngā Pirihimana o Aotearoa’s 137-year existence. Using data gathered from public records, official government reporting, and comparative studies, it reveals the current situation with regards to lethal risks from 1886 to 2019. The book identifies and presents two lethal risk hierarchies, the first for the period 1886-1999 and the second for the period 2000-2019. The hierarchies establish that the lethal risks faced come from: • Firearms • Assaults • And, potentially, Cutting/Stabbing attacks It determines that the nature of lethal risk has not changed, but rather the volume has reduced, meaning today’s officers are less likely to be harmed by lethal risk encounters than their predecessors were. This volume is an ideal starting point for researchers and practitioners interested in developing further scholarly research on lethal force and lethal risks faced by law enforcement officers and the organization they belong to.
This book focuses on the statistical modeling of geophysical and environmental data using Bayesian latent Gaussian models. The structure of…these models is described in a thorough introductory chapter, which explains how to construct prior densities for the model parameters, how to infer the parameters using Bayesian computation, and how to use the models to make predictions. The remaining six chapters focus on the application of Bayesian latent Gaussian models to real examples in glaciology, hydrology, engineering seismology, seismology, meteorology and climatology. These examples include: spatial predictions of surface mass balance; the estimation of Antarctica’s contribution to sea-level rise; the estimation of rating curves for the projection of water level to discharge; ground motion models for strong motion; spatial modeling of earthquake magnitudes; weather forecasting based on numerical model forecasts; and extreme value analysis of precipitation on a high-dimensional grid. The book is aimed at graduate students and experts in statistics, geophysics, environmental sciences, engineering, and related fields.
By Reiner Bartl, Christoph Bartl, Harald Bonél, Emmo Von Tresckow. 2023
Heute kann die Diagnose eines Knochenmarködems (KMÖ) nicht mehr als eine „gutartige, selbstlimitierende Erkrankung“ eingestuft werden. Vielmehr wird das KMÖ-Syndrom…als Warnsignal für den möglichen Übergang in langwierige, schmerzhafte Erkrankungen (z.B. CRPS) oder gar in eine Osteonekrose mit der Konsequenz einer endoprothetischen Versorgung angesehen. Einer klinisch/radiologisch orientierten Klassifikation des lokalen KMÖ mittels MRT kommt daher besondere prognostische Bedeutung zu. Während früher eine Anbohrung des ödematösen Bezirkes als „Mittel der Wahl“ galt, stehen heute effektive Medikamente, biophysikalische Verfahren und Kombinationstherapien zur Verfügung, die zu einer Ausheilung des Ödems und auch der zugrundeliegenden Erkrankung führen.Die vier Autoren des Buches Knochenmarködem haben bei der Abhandlung der klinischen Fächer, die mit der Diagnose und Therapie eines KMÖs konfrontiert sind, großen Wert auf eine multidisziplinäre Betrachtung gelegt. Beteiligte Fachdisziplinen wie Innere Medizin, Hämatologie und Onkologie, Osteologie, Orthopädie, Traumatologie und Sportmedizin sowie Radiologie und Pharmakologie werden fachkundig abgedeckt.
By Andrew Sutton. 2023
This thesis presents significant advances in the use of neural networks to study the properties of neutrinos. Machine learning tools…like neural networks (NN) can be used to identify the particle types or determine their energies in detectors such as those used in the NOvA neutrino experiment, which studies changes in a beam of neutrinos as it propagates approximately 800 km through the earth. NOvA relies heavily on simulations of the physics processes and the detector response; these simulations work well, but do not match the real experiment perfectly. Thus, neural networks trained on simulated datasets must include systematic uncertainties that account for possible imperfections in the simulation. This thesis presents the first application in HEP of adversarial domain generalization to a regression neural network. Applying domain generalization to problems with large systematic variations will reduce the impact of uncertainties while avoiding the risk of falsely constraining the phase space. Reducing the impact of systematic uncertainties makes NOvA analysis more robust, and improves the significance of experimental results.
This concise text provides the concepts, methods, and application examples for integrating sustainability into engineering design and production. It discusses…the role of sustainability in the value creation processes of various enterprises and different tools and methods for systematic incorporation of social and environmental aspects into the product's life cycle. The following topics are covered: sustainable development in engineering systems and the life cycle concept, norms and standards in the sustainable development and integration of socio-economic assessment into technical valuation, production systems, management of the production systems based on circular economy principles, ecodesign practices, and value creation and innovative design in the circular economy. Provides a concise guide for engineering students for applying circular economy practicesPresents examples and short case studies for understanding the methods and toolsFacilitates understanding and application of the life cycle perspective in product manufacturing and green engineering
The book you are about to read is destined to be the first, middle, and maybe even the last word…on nonfiction writing for young, young children. It is certainly a text that you will return to over and over again as you do with a beloved cookbook.—from the Foreword by Tomie dePaola Over eighty- five percent of the reading and writing we do as adults is nonfiction, yet most of the reading and writing in K–3 classrooms is fiction or personal narrative. In Is That a Fact? Teaching Nonfiction Writing K-3, Tony Stead shows you how to open the door to the rich world of nonfiction writing that goes beyond what I did narratives and animal reports. And he convincingly demonstrates the importance of introducing nonfiction writing in the primary grades. Nonfiction inspires enthusiasm in young children because they can choose topics that are of interest to them personally. Is That a Fact? explores a variety of authentic purposes for writing nonfiction, such as describing, explaining, instructing, persuading, retelling, and exploring relationships with others. You will learn how to introduce each purpose using a variety of forms, including letters, reports, poetry, captions, directions, and interviews. Part One provides a complete overview of teaching nonfiction writing in the primary grades and includes:practical ways for organizing nonfiction resources within the classroom;how to assist children in collecting information for research;ideas for helping children keep their sense of voice when writing nonfiction;a chapter on spelling, with examples of how to guide students at each stage of spelling development;strategies for assessment and evaluation that guide teaching and learning engagements. Part Two provides five different explorations that were implemented in actual K–3 classrooms. Each focuses on a specific purpose for writing nonfiction and features:examples of whole-class, small-group, and independent instructional engagements;a comprehensive assessment rubric that will help teachers tailor instruction to the needs of all learners;an extensive resource section that includes lists of books in the exploration, grouped by readability levels;answers to the most commonly asked questions about teaching nonfiction writing. The appendixes include a self-assessment questionnaire, reproducible pages for exploring specific writing forms, and letters to parents. Children need to be introduced to the different purposes of nonfiction writing. They need to know how to plan, compose, revise, and publish nonfiction beyond narrative. Is That a Fact? guides you in achieving these goals with your students.
By Erwin Blackstone, Simon Hakim, Brian Meehan. 2023
This Handbook discusses the use of public-private partnerships in law enforcement and security. Written by international experts across multiple disciplines,…chapters include case studies and cross-sectional industry-wide studies of private security performance in comparison with public police and collaborated experiences of the two sectors. The Handbook uses existing experiences and public economics to suggest how to improve security and social welfare through greater competition and cooperation between public and private security. This volume provides an integrated framework to assist policymakers in both public and private agencies. This Handbook will be an important reference for scholars in public economics, public administration, criminology, and criminal justice, as well as professionals and policymakers in the public and private sectors.
Women came through the doors at a community-based birthing center in the South Bronx seeking prenatal care. They had heard…about the center from a neighbor, a parents' group at their children’s school, or the local mosque or church. What they found when they arrived was a brightly-colored waiting area that resembled a living room, children immersed in games in a corner, and staff that reflected the mosaic of cultures living in the surrounding apartments. They also met midwives who asked about their lives, their children, their families and traditions. If pregnancies developed complications, back-up obstetricians were there to give higher levels of care, with the women returning to the midwifery center afterwards. The results were healthy mothers and healthy babies. For over twenty years the center became a haven for women’s health care and a national exemplar. It is a tragic and unjust paradox that the United States, the highest income country in the world and the country with the largest budget for perinatal care, has rising rates of maternal mortality that disproportionately affect women of color. Yet an inner-city maternity center with midwifery care found solutions to the challenge of making birth safe for low-income populations, especially women of color. This oral history presents the stories of twelve women who participated in this care. As they tell it, the experience changed their lives and their understanding of what safe, quality maternal care can achieve. Jennifer Dohrn examines the systems that perpetuate disparities in care, from global to local, and describes essential components needed for change, using oral histories as evidence for the way forward towards maternal health as a human right.
Advances in Computational Intelligence: 22nd Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, MICAI 2023, Yucatán, Mexico, November 13–18, 2023, Proceedings, Part I (Lecture Notes in Computer Science #14391)
By Hiram Calvo, Lourdes Martínez-Villaseñor, Hiram Ponce. 2024
The two-volume set LNAI 14391 and 14392 constitutes the proceedings of the 22nd Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, MICAI…2023, held in Yucatán, Mexico, in November 2023.The total of 49 papers presented in these two volumes was carefully reviewed and selected from 115 submissions.The proceedings of MICAI 2023 are published in two volumes. The first volume, Advances in Computational Intelligence, contains 24 papers structured into three sections:– Machine Learning– Computer Vision and Image Processing– Intelligent SystemsThe second volume, Advances in Soft Computing, contains 25 papers structured into three sections:– Natural Language Processing– Bioinformatics and Medical Applications– Robotics and Applications
By Chanita Halbert. 2023
Despite improvements in strategies for early detection and cancer treatment, racial and ethnic groups and individuals from other medically underserved…populations continue to experience disparities in cancer morbidity and mortality. Research in cancer health disparities has evolved from first generation studies that described racial differences in morbidity and mortality to research that examines the efforts of interventions that focus on increasing access to early detection and treatment. As a result of these efforts, racial background, socioeconomic characteristics, access to high quality cancer care, and psychological and social factors have been documented as important determinants of cancer health disparities; these factors provide the context within which cancer is detected, treated, and prevented. The field of cancer health disparities is now at a critical juncture where it is essential to move beyond descriptive information on determinants of disparities in cancer morbidity and mortality to translational studies that examine basic biological processes and how these processes interact with social, psychological, and behavioral factors to contribute to disparities in cancer risk and outcomes. Empirical evidence about the influence of multilevel determinants has grown, and now, more than ever, efforts are being made to understand the independent and interactive effects of biological, psychological, behavioral, and social determinants of cancer health disparities and to translate this information into sustainable interventions for cancer prevention, control, and treatment. Provides an in-depth examination of emerging evidence about multilevel determinants of cancer health disparitiesDescribes novel frameworks and approaches that are being used to understand and address cancer health disparitiesPresents evidence-based interventions that have potential to achieve equity in cancer outcomesReviews the effects of previous and ongoing approaches to address disparities
By Mujeebur Khan. 2023
The volume focuses on novel and effective biological and biotechnological methods for managing major plant parasitic nematodes in economically important…agricultural crops. Nematodes develop a wide variety of interactions with soil microbes and host plants, and cause enormous losses in crop yields equivalent to around USD 173 billion annually. In view of growing concern for pesticide contamination in crops, coupled with ban on several efficacious pesticides, and increasing demand for organic foods, the biological and biotechnological approaches offer a good alternative to chemicals for managing nematode infestations in agricultural crops. The book embodies twenty-two chapters which are arranged in two groups. The first group covers different novel methods of nematode management such as biotechnological, biopesticides, microbial consortia, host resistance, omics technology, transgenics, nano-nematicides, nano-diagnosis, etc. The second groups of chapters describe important nematode problems in major crops such as cereals, vegetables, pulses, spices, wood yielding conifers, etc. Overall, the book collates the latest information on above topics and offers practical solutions to the limitations and challenges in the existing management technologies. This book is of interest and serves up-to-date and elaborated information to agriculture researchers, teachers, scientists, under-graduates, post-graduates, plant nematologists, plant pathologists, plant protectionists, agronomists, horticulturalists, helminthologists, extension workers, and NGOs.