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By Subal Kar. 2022
Physics and Astrophysics—Glimpses of the Progress provides a comprehensive account of physics and astrophysics from the time of Aristotle to…the modern era of Stephen Hawking and beyond. It takes the readers of all ages through a pleasant journey touching on the major discoveries and inventions that have taken place in both the macro-world, including that in the cosmos, and the micro-world of atomic and subatomic particles related to physics and astrophysics. Use of historical perspective and anecdote makes the storytelling on the progress of physics and astrophysics both interesting and absorbing. While peering through different developments in these fields, the book never compromises with the sanctity of the scientific content, including the depth and beauty of the physical concept of the topics concerned and the philosophical viewpoints they represent. Where appropriate, the book also delves into value judgments of life that affect our civilization. Features The intricate concepts of physics and astrophysics are explained in simple terms and in easy-to-understand language. Physics and astrophysics are discussed in a connected and correlated way in a single volume of comprehensive size but in totality, which to date is the unique feature of this book. Starting with Aristotle’s Physics and going through the work of Newton, Einstein, Schrödinger, Hubble, Hewish, Hawking, and others, including the present research on dark energy, dark matter, and the fifth force of nature, the reader will be kept absorbed and spellbound. In addition to the fundamental principles of Newtonian mechanics, Einstein’s relativity, quantum mechanics, string theory, loop quantum gravity, and so on, the cutting-edge technologies of recent times, such as the Large Hadron Collider, Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, and Event Horizon Telescope, are also explored. The book is aimed primarily at undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and professionals studying physics and astrophysics. General readers will also find the book useful to quench their thirst for knowledge about the developments in physics and astrophysics.
The Science of Harry Potter: The Spellbinding Science Behind the Magic, Gadgets, Potions, and More! (The Science of Series)
By Mark Brake, Jon Chase. 2017
How does magic in J. K. Rowling’s universe work? Finally, the scientific secrets are revealed!The story of the boy who…lived has brought the idea of magic and sorcery into mainstream fruition more than any other book series in history. Modern muggle scientists have uncovered explanations to the seemingly impossible, including answers to such questions as: Will we ever see an invisibility cloak? How hazardous is a flying broomstick like the Nimbus 2000? How has medicine made powerful potions from peculiar plants? (Felix Felicis, anyone?) Can scientists ever demonstrate Wingardium Leviosa, or the flying power of a Golden Snitch? Is it possible to stupefy someone? And many more!Often perceived as a supernatural force, magic captivates and delights its audience because of its seeming ability to defy physics and logic. But did you ever wonder if science has any explanation for these fantastic feats? The Science of Harry Potter examines the scientific principles—behind some of your favorite characters, spells, items, scenes, and even games like Quidditch and Wizard’s Chess—from boy wizard Harry Potter’s world, providing in-depth analysis and scientific facts to support its theories. Author Mark Brake, whose The Science of Star Wars was a knockout success, has found the answers to satisfy the curious spirits of muggles everywhere…A perfect Harry Potter gift for anyone obsessed enough to stand in line to be the first to see Harry Potter and the Cursed Child or Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, witches and wizards alike will be fascinated by the merging of this improbable realm and real science!
By Kazuki Yokomizo. 2022
This book constructs a non-Bloch band theory and studies physics described by non-Hermitian Hamiltonian in terms of the theory proposed…here.In non-Hermitian crystals, the author introduces the non-Bloch band theory which produces an energy spectrum in the limit of a large system size. The energy spectrum is then calculated from a generalized Brillouin zone for a complex Bloch wave number. While a generalized Brillouin zone becomes a unit circle on a complex plane in Hermitian systems, it becomes a circle with cusps in non-Hermitian systems. Such unique features of the generalized Brillouin zone realize remarkable phenomena peculiar in non-Hermitian systems. Further the author reveals rich aspects of non-Hermitian physics in terms of the non-Bloch band theory. First, a topological invariant defined by a generalized Brillouin zone implies the appearance of topological edge states. Second, a topological semimetal phase with exceptional points appears, The topological semimetal phase is unique to non-Hermitian systems because it is caused by the deformation of the generalized Brillouin zone by changes of system parameters. Third, the author reveals a certain relationship between the non-Bloch waves and non-Hermitian topology.
A groundbreaking theoretical physicist traces his career, reflecting on the successes and failures, triumphs and insecurities of a life cut…short by cancer.The groundbreaking theoretical physicist Joseph Polchinski explained the genesis of his memoir this way: &“Having only two bodies of knowledge, myself and physics, I decided to write an autobiography about my development as a theoretical physicist.&” In this posthumously published account of his life and work, Polchinski (1954–2018) describes successes and failures, triumphs and insecurities, and the sheer persistence that led to his greatest discoveries. Writing engagingly and accessibly, with the wry humor for which he was known, Polchinski gives theoretical physics a very human face. Polchinski, famous for his contributions to string theory, may have changed the course of modern theoretical physics, but he was a late bloomer—doing most of his important work after the age of forty. His death from brain cancer at sixty-three cut short a career at its peak. Working on the memoir after his diagnosis, using a text-to-speech algorithm because he could no longer read words on a page, he was able to recapitulate his entire career, down to the details of problems he had worked on. For Polchinski, physics went deeper than words. This edition includes photographs from Polchinski&’s professional and family life, as well as physics explainer boxes, other technical edits, and bibliographic notes by his former student Ahmad Almheiri, a foreword by Andrew Strominger, and an afterword by his wife Dorothy Chun and sons Steven and Daniel.
Deep Learning to See: Towards New Foundations of Computer Vision (SpringerBriefs in Computer Science)
By Marco Gori, Alessandro Betti, Stefano Melacci. 2022
The remarkable progress in computer vision over the last few years is, by and large, attributed to deep learning, fueled…by the availability of huge sets of labeled data, and paired with the explosive growth of the GPU paradigm. While subscribing to this view, this work criticizes the supposed scientific progress in the field, and proposes the investigation of vision within the framework of information-based laws of nature. This work poses fundamental questions about vision that remain far from understood, leading the reader on a journey populated by novel challenges resonating with the foundations of machine learning. The central thesis proposed is that for a deeper understanding of visual computational processes, it is necessary to look beyond the applications of general purpose machine learning algorithms, and focus instead on appropriate learning theories that take into account the spatiotemporal nature of the visual signal.Serving to inspire and stimulate critical reflection and discussion, yet requiring no prior advanced technical knowledge, the text can naturally be paired with classic textbooks on computer vision to better frame the current state of the art, open problems, and novel potential solutions. As such, it will be of great benefit to graduate and advanced undergraduate students in computer science, computational neuroscience, physics, and other related disciplines.
By Chiara Marletto. 2021
From a young British scientist, a groundbreaking exploration of a radically different approach to physicsThere is a vast class of…things that science has so far almost entirely neglected. They are central to the understanding of physical reality both at an everyday level and at the level of the most fundamental phenomena in physics, yet have traditionally been assumed to be impossible to incorporate into fundamental scientific explanations. They are facts not about what is (the actual) but about what could be (counterfactuals).According to physicist Chiara Marletto, laws about things being possible or impossible may generate an alternative way of providing explanations. This fascinating, far-reaching approach holds promise for revolutionizing the way fundamental physics is formulated and for providing essential tools to face existing technological challenges--from delivering the next generation of information-processing devices beyond the universal quantum computer to designing AIs. Each chapter in the book delineates how an existing vexed open problem in science can be solved by this radically different approach and it is augmented by short fictional stories that explicate the main point of the chapter. As Marletto demonstrates, contemplating what is possible can give us a more complete and hopeful picture of the physical world.
Complex System Governance: Theory and Practice (Topics in Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality #40)
By Polinpapilinho F. Katina, Charles B. Keating, Charles W. Chesterman Jr., James C. Pyne. 2022
This book explores Complex System Governance (CSG)—an emerging field concerned with the design, execution, and evolution of essential functions necessary…to ensure continued viability of a system. The book focuses on three primary development areas to better understand and utilize current developments CSG. First, the conceptual foundations for CSG are developed, from systems theory, management cybernetics, and governance. Second, a set of critical CSG topics are examined from conceptual as well as practice perspectives. Third, several development and application issues are discussed. Ultimately, CSG is positioned as an emerging field with strong theoretical grounding and significant implications for improving practices and performance to better address complex systems and their problems.
By Romano Rupp. 2022
Dieses Lehrbuch eröffnet einen alternativen Zugang zur Physik und bietet eine konsistente Einführung in die relevanten Themen der klassischen Physik.…Anders als in vielen Physikbüchern wird hier die grundlegende Methode der Physik am Beispiel einer vorläufigen Theorie des Lichtes erläutert und daran anknüpfend die Geometrische Optik und die Relativitätstheorie aufgebaut. Von den mathematischen Anforderungen stützt es sich damit auf bekanntes Schulwissen.Erst im Anschluss werden die Mechanik auf den Erhaltungsgrößen Impuls und Energie entwickelt und die wichtigsten Konzepte aus Kinematik und Dynamik bis hin zur Kontinuumsmechanik dargestellt. Von dort gelingt ein fließender Übergang in die Thermodynamik, wo mit der thermischen Energie erstmals eine nicht-mechanische Energieform eingeführt wird. Besonderes Augenmerk wird dabei von Anfang an auf die Entropie gesetzt, die als extensive Zustandsvariable der thermischen Energieform den Schlüsselbegriff der Thermodynamik darstellt.Als Nächstes werden unter den Schlagwörtern „chemische Energie“ und „elektrische Energie“ zwei weitere Beispiele für nicht-mechanische Energieformen vorgestellt. Zwei weiterführende Kapitel über Transportphänomene und Wellen runden die Darstellung ab.Die jeweiligen mathematischen Kenntnisse werden parallel zu den physikalischen Inhalten eingeführt und erweitert sowie teilweise in ergänzenden Kapiteln zusammenfassend bereitgestellt. Kürzere philosophische Betrachtungen und Histörchen aus der Physikgeschichte lockern die Darstellung auf. Insbesondere eignet sich das Buch für Studierende als Ergänzung zur Physik-Vorlesung und für Lehrende der Physik, die einen neuen Zugang für ihre Lehre suchen.
This book proposes a framework for assessing countries’ levels of compliance with international space law and norms. It begins by…exploring the development of two movements – the evidence-based policymaking and programming movement, and the rise of ratings and rankings research – and their growth across various disciplines. The analysis suggests that such efforts are useful in gauging the behavior of countries in space according to how well they adhere to existing space law and norms. To date, there is no comprehensive, periodic, and systematic measure of countries’ efforts to comply with space law and norms; this work endeavors to fill that gap by offering a framework in which to assess compliance. Applying the framework results in five possible ratings that a country may be assigned, ranging from highly compliant to non-compliant. Ideally, the proposed framework can be used to promote compliance, and with it, space security and sustainability.
By Jürgen Kompenhans, Markus Raffel, Christian E. Willert, Fulvio Scarano, Christian J. Kähler, Steven T. Wereley. 1998
This immensely practical guide to PIV provides a condensed, yet exhaustive guide to most of the information needed for experiments…employing the technique. This second edition has updated chapters on the principles and extra information on microscopic, high-speed and three component measurements as well as a description of advanced evaluation techniques. What’s more, the huge increase in the range of possible applications has been taken into account as the chapter describing these applications of the PIV technique has been expanded.
By M. Bertero, P. Boccacci, Christine De Mol. 2022
Fully updated throughout, with several new chapters, this second edition of Introduction to Inverse Problems in Imaging guides advanced undergraduate…and graduate students in physics, computer science, mathematics and engineering through the principles of linear inverse problems, in addition to methods of their approximate solution and their practical applications in imaging. The level of mathematical treatment is kept as low as possible to make the book suitable for a wide range of readers from different backgrounds, with readers needing just a rudimentary understanding of analysis, geometry, linear algebra, probability theory, and Fourier analysis. This second edition contains new chapters on quadratic, iterative, and sparsity-enforcing tikhonov regularizations in addition to maximum likelihood methods and bayesian regularization. The authors concentrate on presenting easily implementable and fast solution algorithms. With examples and exercised throughout, the book will provide the reader with the appropriate background for a clear understanding of the essence of inverse problems (ill-posedness and its cure) and, consequently, for an intelligent assessment of the rapidly growing literature on these problems. Key features: · Provides an accessible introduction to the topic, whilst keeping mathematics to a minimum · Interdisciplinary topic with growing relevance and wide-ranging applications · Accompanied by numerical examples throughout Author bios Mario Bertero is a Professor Emeritus at the Università di Genova. Patrizia Boccacci is a Professor at the Università di Genova. Christine De Mol is a Professor at the Université libre de Bruxelles.
By Daniel Whiteson, Jorge Cham. 2021
An eminent physicist at CERN and the cartoonist behind the hugely successful PhD Comics answer the most important, most outrageous…and funniest questions about everything.You've got questions: about space, time, gravity, and the odds of meeting your older self inside a wormhole. All the answers you need are right here.As a species, we may not agree on much, but one thing brings us all together: a need to know. We all wonder, and deep down we all have the same big questions. Why can't I travel back in time? Where did the universe come from? What's inside a black hole? Can I rearrange the particles in my cat and turn it into a dog?Physics professor Daniel Whiteson and researcher-turned-cartoonist Jorge Cham are experts at explaining science in ways we can all understand, in their books and on their popular podcast, Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe. With their signature blend of humour and oh-now-I-get-it clarity, Jorge and Daniel offer short, accessible, and lighthearted answers to some of the most common, most outrageous, and most profound questions about the universe they've been asked.This witty and entertaining audiobook is an essential troubleshooting guide for the perplexing aspects of reality, big and small, from the invisible particles that make up your body to the identical version of you currently reading this exact sentence in the corner of some other galaxy. If the universe came with an FAQ, this would be it.(P) 2021 Hodder & Stoughton Limited
By Edwin Budding, Osman Demircan. 2020
Introduction to Close Binary Systems provides a comprehensive survey and guide to the fast-moving field of multiple, specifically binary, stars,…with an up to date account of research around 'close', i.e. interacting pairs. Such interactions allow direct quantification of stellar properties, opening up factual insights into basic building blocks of the Universe. The book provides a much needed update for the seminal Close Binary Systems of Zdenĕk Kopal. Following a comparable plan, it presents relevant subject matter with an emphasis on building a framework of understanding to serve as a supporting resource for students and researchers. The text starts from a general historical background and progresses into the main theoretical ideas supporting our prima facie interpretation of observations. The central chapters explore further into these observational methods, arranged according to the classic subdivisions of astrometry, spectroscopy and photometry. Optimal inversion of observational data into model parametrization is a theme through these chapters. Significant here is the problem of how non-uniqueness in modelling affects interpretation. The underlying issues of stellar evolution bearing on observational evidence become paramount in the last four chapters. The book proceeds step-by-step from directly understandable examples of unevolved pairs to the challenging cases where stars are found in more and more extreme conditions, leading up to the mergers of massive black hole pairs seen in the new field of gravitational wave astronomy. This is a valuable reference for postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students working in mainstream areas of stellar astrophysics, with applications also to exoplanet research which shares some methodological features. Course designers for stellar astrophysics will find a useful selection of topics within this book. Key features:• Provides a well-explained and backgrounded, up-to-date account of close binary systems, in a fast-moving field of research that is growing in scientific importance• Surveys a wide range of case-studies within the context of binary and multiple star systems• Fills an acknowledged gap in current literature
Discover the science behind the abilities of your favorite superheroes! The concept of the superhero has permeated our culture. They…fascinate their fans with their incredible superhuman abilities and impressive technology. But do you ever wonder if any of it is plausible or rooted in fact? Enter The Science of Superheroes, which address more than fifty topics that span the worlds of your favorite superheroes and villains. Explore and examine their amazing abilities and fantastic gadgets with a detailed scientific lens. The scientific questions examined within this book include: Can an Iron Man suit be made? How does Thor's hammer work? Could any known forms of radiation cause superpowers? How many calories does Superman need each day? Could you cross a Lamborghini and a hummer to make the Batmobile Tumbler? And many more! Whether you're a movie or comic buff, this book is certain to entertain and open your eyes to the truth behind these amazing characters.
By Jack Gunther, Charles Gunther. 2015
The 1930s was a decade that provided impressive breakthroughs in the field of forensic ballistics, or firearms identification. Following the…St. Valentine’s Day Massacre of 1929, where ballistic expert Calvin Goddard’s testimony brought attention to the relatively new field, several forensic ballistic books were published. Among these were Burrard’s The Identification of Firearms and Forensic Ballistics and Hatcher’s Textbook of Firearms Investigations, Identification, and Evidence. Burrard introduced forensic examination to the British judicial system; Hatcher applied his considerable knowledge of firearms and ammunition to weapons’ design, manufacture, and testing. Gunthers’ The Identification of Firearms combined the approaches of these volumes into a new book that emphasized both the painstaking scientific methodology vital to firearms identification, complete with ballistics photographs, and its practical use by analyses of several legal cases where firearms identification was used. These include the infamous Sacco-Vanzetti case, the first in American legal history where forensic ballistics played a very prominent role in courtroom proceedings. The Gunther brothers utilized their respective legal and military experience to provide a comprehensive reference volume that is noteworthy for those interested in law enforcement or ballistics as well as gun enthusiasts.
The geeks will inherit the earth.With well over two hundred episodes and a dozen seasons, The Big Bang Theory is…one of America’s favorite television series, bringing a new class of character to mainstream television: the science nerd.In spite of its evident popularity and influence in shaping public attitudes to science and scientists, there are relatively few books that explore the show’s culture and social dimension. The Science of The Big Bang Theory looks behind the comedy scenes and scripts of this long-running and successful TV show to explore topics such as:The Bachelor Party Corrosion and ArchimedesThe Valentino Submergence: Fun with FlagsThe Dumpling Decoupling: Sheldon and Doctor WhoThe Mystery Date Observation: The Unlikely Dating Habits of EggheadsAnd More!This book is a light-hearted science companion to TV's The Big Bang Theory, providing you with just the kind of dissection of the science and culture you’d need to understand “math, science, history, unraveling the mysteries, that all started with the big bang! Hey!”
Communication-Protocol-Based Filtering and Control of Networked Systems (Studies in Systems, Decision and Control #430)
By Zidong Wang, Lei Zou, Jinling Liang. 2022
Communication-Protocol-Based Filtering and Control of Networked Systems is a self-contained treatment of the state of the art in communication-protocol-based filtering and…control; recent advances in networked systems; and the potential for application in sensor networks. This book provides new concepts, new models and new methodologies with practical significance in control engineering and signal processing. The book first establishes signal-transmission models subject to different communication protocols and then develops new filter design techniques based on those models and preset requirements for filtering performance. The authors then extend this work to finite-horizon H-infinity control, ultimately bounded control and finite-horizon consensus control. The focus throughout is on three typical communications protocols: the round-robin, random-access and try-once-and-discard protocols, and the systems studied are drawn from a variety of classes, among them nonlinear systems, time-delayed and time-varying systems, multi-agent systems and complex networks. Readers are shown the latest techniques—recursive linear matrix inequalities, backward recursive difference equations, stochastic analysis and mapping methods. The unified framework for communication-protocol-based filtering and control for different networked systems established in the book will be of interest to academic researchers and practicing engineers working with communications and other signal-processing systems. Senior undergraduate and graduate students looking to increase their knowledge of current methods in control and signal processing of networked systems will also find this book valuable.
From Brian Greene, one of the world's leading physicists and author the Pulitzer Prize finalist The Elegant Universe, comes a…grand tour of the universe that makes us look at reality in a completely different way.Space and time form the very fabric of the cosmos. Yet they remain among the most mysterious of concepts. Is space an entity? Why does time have a direction? Could the universe exist without space and time? Can we travel to the past? Greene has set himself a daunting task: to explain non-intuitive, mathematical concepts like String Theory, the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, and Inflationary Cosmology with analogies drawn from common experience. From Newton's unchanging realm in which space and time are absolute, to Einstein's fluid conception of spacetime, to quantum mechanics' entangled arena where vastly distant objects can instantaneously coordinate their behavior, Greene takes us all, regardless of our scientific backgrounds, on an irresistible and revelatory journey to the new layers of reality that modern physics has discovered lying just beneath the surface of our everyday world.From the Trade Paperback edition.
By Brian Greene. 2011
From the best-selling author of The Elegant Universe and The Fabric of the Cosmos comes his most expansive and accessible…book to date--a book that takes on the grandest question: Is ours the only universe?There was a time when "universe" meant all there is. Everything. Yet, in recent years discoveries in physics and cosmology have led a number of scientists to conclude that our universe may be one among many. With crystal-clear prose and inspired use of analogy, Brian Greene shows how a range of different "multiverse" proposals emerges from theories developed to explain the most refined observations of both subatomic particles and the dark depths of space: a multiverse in which you have an infinite number of doppelgängers, each reading this sentence in a distant universe; a multiverse comprising a vast ocean of bubble universes, of which ours is but one; a multiverse that endlessly cycles through time, or one that might be hovering millimeters away yet remains invisible; another in which every possibility allowed by quantum physics is brought to life. Or, perhaps strangest of all, a multiverse made purely of math.Greene, one of our foremost physicists and science writers, takes us on a captivating exploration of these parallel worlds and reveals how much of reality's true nature may be deeply hidden within them. And, with his unrivaled ability to make the most challenging of material accessible and entertaining, Greene tackles the core question: How can fundamental science progress if great swaths of reality lie beyond our reach?Sparked by Greene's trademark wit and precision, The Hidden Reality is at once a far-reaching survey of cutting-edge physics and a remarkable journey to the very edge of reality--a journey grounded firmly in science and limited only by our imagination.From the Hardcover edition.
By Brian Greene. 2020
From the world-renowned physicist and best-selling author of The Elegant Universe comes this captivating exploration of deep time and humanity's…search for purpose. <P><P>Until the End of Time is Brian Greene's breathtaking new exploration of the cosmos and our quest to understand it. Greene takes us on a journey across time, from our most refined understanding of the universe's beginning, to the closest science can take us to the very end. He explores how life and mind emerged from the initial chaos, and how our minds, in coming to understand their own impermanence, seek in different ways to give meaning to experience: in narrative, myth, religion, creative expression, science, the quest for truth, and our longing for the eternal. <P><P>Through a series of nested stories that explain distinct but interwoven layers of reality--from quantum mechanics to consciousness to black holes--Greene provides us with a clearer sense of how we came to be, a finer picture of where we are now, and a firmer understanding of where we are headed. With this grand tour of the universe, beginning to end, Brian Greene allows us all to grasp and appreciate our fleeting but utterly exquisite moment in the cosmos. <P><P><b>A New York Times Bestseller</b>