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By Joanne Baker. 2007
We encounter physics before we've even left the house in the morning; an alarm clock tracks time, a mirror reflects…light waves and our mobile phones rely on satellites held in their orbit by gravity. Where would we be without the Bernoulli equation to explain how planes fly, electromagnetic waves enabling us to communicate around the world or the discovery of X-rays? In 50 Physics Ideas You Really Need to Know Joanne Baker will uncover the physics all around us, from basic concepts like gravity, light and energy through to the complexities of quantum theory, chaos and dark energy. Featuring short biographies of iconic physicists, explanatory diagrams and timelines showing discoveries within their historical context, this book is the perfect guide to the fundamental concepts of physics, making even the most challenging theories easy to understand. Contents include: Newton's law of gravitation, Brownian motion, Chaos theory, Fleming's right hand rule, Planck's law, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, Schrodinger's cat, Superconductivity, Rutherford's atom, Nuclear fission and fusion, The God particle, String theory, Special and general relativity, The big bang and the Anthropic principle.
By J. P. McEvoy. 2010
Since the dawn of humanity, men have attempted to divine the nature of the heavens. The first astronomers mapped the…movement of the seasons and used the positions of the constellations for augurs and astrology. Today, the search goes ever deeper into the nature of reality and life itself. In this accessible overview, astrophysicist J.P. McEvoy tells the story of how our knowledge of the cosmos has developed. He puts in context many of the greatest discoveries of all time and many of the dominant personalities: Aristotle, Copernicus, and Isaac Newton, and as we approach the modern era, Einstein, Eddington, and Hawking.
By Francesco Becattini, Jinfeng Liao, Michael Lisa. 2021
This book addresses the needs of growing community of graduate students and researchers new to the area, for a survey…that covers a wide range of pertinent topics, summarizes the current status of the field, and provides the necessary pedagogical materials for newcomers. The investigation of strongly interacting matter under the influence of macroscopic rotational motion is a new, emerging area of research that encompasses a broad range of conventional physics disciplines such as nuclear physics, astrophysics, and condensed matter physics, where the non-trivial interplay between global rotation and spin is generating many novel phenomena. Edited and authored by leading researchers in the field, this book covers the following topics: thermodynamics and equilibrium distribution of rotating matter; quantum field theory and rotation; phase structure of QCD matter under rotation; kinetic theory of relativistic rotating matter; hydrodynamics with spin; magnetic effects in fluid systems with high vorticity and charge; polarization measurements in heavy ion collisions; hydrodynamic modeling of the QCD plasma and polarization calculation in relativistic heavy ion collisions; chiral vortical effect; rotational effects and related topics in neutron stars and condensed matter systems.
By Zuzana Parusniková, David Merritt. 2021
Of all philosophers of the 20th century, few built more bridges between academic disciplines than Karl Popper. He contributed to…a wide variety of fields in addition to the epistemology and the theory of scientific method for which he is best known. This book illustrates and evaluates the impact, both substantive and methodological, that Popper has had in the natural and mathematical sciences. The topics selected include quantum mechanics, evolutionary biology, cosmology, mathematical logic, statistics, and cognitive science. The approach is multidisciplinary, opening a dialogue across scientific disciplines and between scientists and philosophers.
By Steven P. Starkovich. 2021
This textbook serves as an introduction to groups, rings, fields, vector and tensor spaces, algebras, topological spaces, differentiable manifolds and…Lie groups --- mathematical structures which are foundational to modern theoretical physics. It is aimed primarily at undergraduate students in physics and mathematics with no previous background in these topics. Applications to physics --- such as the metric tensor of special relativity, the symplectic structures associated with Hamilton's equations and the Generalized Stokes's Theorem --- appear at appropriate places in the text. Worked examples, end-of-chapter problems (many with hints and some with answers) and guides to further reading make this an excellent book for self-study. Upon completing this book the reader will be well prepared to delve more deeply into advanced texts and specialized monographs in theoretical physics or mathematics.
By Celso Melchiades Doria. 2021
This book is divided into two parts, the first one to study the theory of differentiable functions between Banach spaces…and the second to study the differential form formalism and to address the Stokes' Theorem and its applications. Related to the first part, there is an introduction to the content of Linear Bounded Operators in Banach Spaces with classic examples of compact and Fredholm operators, this aiming to define the derivative of Fréchet and to give examples in Variational Calculus and to extend the results to Fredholm maps. The Inverse Function Theorem is explained in full details to help the reader to understand the proof details and its motivations. The inverse function theorem and applications make up this first part. The text contains an elementary approach to Vector Fields and Flows, including the Frobenius Theorem. The Differential Forms are introduced and applied to obtain the Stokes Theorem and to define De Rham cohomology groups. As an application, the final chapter contains an introduction to the Harmonic Functions and a geometric approach to Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism.
Advances in Methods and Applications of Quantum Systems in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology (Progress in Theoretical Chemistry and Physics #33)
By Jean Maruani, Erkki Brändas, Alexander V. Glushkov, Olga Yu. Khetselius. 2021
This book reviews the most significant advances in concepts, methods, and applications of quantum systems in a broad variety of…problems in modern chemistry, physics, and biology. In particular, it discusses atomic, molecular, and solid structure, dynamics and spectroscopy, relativistic and correlation effects in quantum chemistry, topics of computational chemistry, physics and biology, as well as applications of theoretical chemistry and physics in advanced molecular and nano-materials and biochemical systems. The book contains peer-reviewed contributions written by leading experts in the fields and based on the presentations given at the Twenty-Fourth International Workshop on Quantum Systems in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology held in Odessa, Ukraine, in August 2019. This book is aimed at advanced graduate students, academics, and researchers, both in university and corporation laboratories, interested in state-of-the-art and novel trends in quantum chemistry, physics, biology, and their applications.
By Jacob Dunningham. 2011
By Avi Loeb, Manasvi Lingam. 2021
A rigorous and scientific analysis of the myriad possibilities of life beyond our planet. “Are we alone in the universe?”…This tantalizing question has captivated humanity over millennia, but seldom has it been approached rigorously. Today the search for signatures of extraterrestrial life and intelligence has become a rapidly advancing scientific endeavor. Missions to Mars, Europa, and Titan seek evidence of life. Laboratory experiments have made great strides in creating synthetic life, deepening our understanding of conditions that give rise to living entities. And on the horizon are sophisticated telescopes to detect and characterize exoplanets most likely to harbor life. Life in the Cosmos offers a thorough overview of the burgeoning field of astrobiology, including the salient methods and paradigms involved in the search for extraterrestrial life and intelligence. Manasvi Lingam and Abraham Loeb tackle three areas of interest in hunting for life “out there”: first, the pathways by which life originates and evolves; second, planetary and stellar factors that affect the habitability of worlds, with an eye on the biomarkers that may reveal the presence of microbial life; and finally, the detection of technological signals that could be indicative of intelligence. Drawing on empirical data from observations and experiments, as well as the latest theoretical and computational developments, the authors make a compelling scientific case for the search for life beyond what we can currently see. Meticulous and comprehensive, Life in the Cosmos is a master class from top researchers in astrobiology, suggesting that the answer to our age-old question is closer than ever before.
By Georgia Amson-Bradshaw. 2018
Help kids discover science - in a flash!Have you heard all about SOUND? This book contains everything you need to…know about echoes, information about infrasound, notes about musical notes and more, so listen up! Science in a Flash: Sounds looks at what sound is, how it is made and what it is used for. Vibrations, music and animal hearing are also covered.This essential KS2 series covers all the key science topics in energetic, quick-fire way, aiding clear comprehension by getting straight to the point! Each spread starts with a 'flash' or headline, summing-up succinctly the science information to follow. Attractive and light-hearted illustration visually conveys the information, adding depth and detail to engage children. Also includes fun jokes and cartoons to keep even the most reluctant readers entertained.
By Jim Breithaupt. 2010
Understand Physics gives you a solid understanding of the key skills and ideas that run through the subject. You will…explore the important concepts of force and motion, electricity, light, molecules, matter and space and discover the frontiers of physics. With numerous questions, answers and worked examples throughout, you will feel confident in approaching the science and applying your knowledge.NOT GOT MUCH TIME?One, five and ten-minute introductions to key principles to get you started.AUTHOR INSIGHTSLots of instant help with common problems and quick tips for success, based on the author's many years of experience.TEST YOURSELFTests in the book and online to keep track of your progress.EXTEND YOUR KNOWLEDGEExtra online articles at www.teachyourself.com to give you a richer understanding of physics.FIVE THINGS TO REMEMBERQuick refreshers to help you remember the key facts.TRY THISInnovative exercises illustrate what you've learnt and how to use it.
By Friedhelm Kuypers. 2020
By Kai Kupferschmidt. 2019
A globe-trotting quest to find blue in the natural world—and to understand our collective obsession with this captivating color Search…human history and you&’ll quickly conclude that we&’ve been enamored of blue at least since the pharaohs. So, it&’s startling to turn to the realms of nature and discover that &“true&” blue is truly rare. From the rain forest&’s morpho butterfly to the blue jay flitting past your window, few living things are blue—and most that appear so are performing sleight of hand with physics or chemistry. Cornflowers use the pigment found in red roses to achieve their blue hue. Even the blue sky above us is a trick of the light. Science journalist Kai Kupferschmidt has been fascinated by blue since childhood. In Blue, his quest to understand the science and nature of his favorite color takes him from a biotech laboratory in Japan and a volcanic lake in Oregon to Brandenburg, Germany— home of the last surviving blue-feathered Spix&’s macaws. Whether it&’s deep underground where blue crystals grow or miles overhead where astronauts gaze down at our &“blue marble&” planet, wherever we do find Earth&’s rarest color, it always has a story to tell.
Home Learning Pack: Quick, clear lessons you can use at home for science learning! (Science in a Flash #999)
By Georgia Amson-Bradshaw. 2017
Help kids discover science at home - in a flash!Get your kids learning science with quick and clear lessons you…can use for home learning. Simple activities and easy experiments give your children hands-on learning opportunities - and the jokes and cartoons throughout the ebooks will help to keep all home-learners engaged and excited to learn! Easily observe a plant's life cycle by sprouting your own seeds in a clear plastic bag.Make your own camouflaged butterfly to help you remember your lesson on adaptations.Spot the riddles and pop quizes throughout: Can you find the hidden spider? Count all the mammals on the page! Where in the universe would you weigh the most? What forces balance to make a duck float? And so many more!Children can confidently keep up with their school science topics with this easy-to-follow digital learning pack.The ebooks in the pack cover:Light ForcesLiving ThingsAlso available as ebooks are:Earth and SpaceElectricityRocksSoundStates of Matter
Mathematical Modeling of Biosensors: An Introduction For Chemists And Mathematicians (Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors #9)
By Juozas Kulys, Romas Baronas, Feliksas Ivanauskas. 2021
This newly designed and enlarged edition offers an up-to-date presentation of biosensor development and modeling from both a chemical and a…mathematical point of view. An entire new chapter in particular is dedicated to optimal design of biosensors. Two more new chapters discuss biosensors which utilize microbial cells and are based on carbon nanotubes respectively. All the other chapters have been revised and updated. The book contains unique modeling methods for amperometric, potentiometric and optical biosensors based mainly on biocatalysts . It examines processes that occur in the sensors' layers and at their interface, and it provides analytical and numerical methods to solve equations of conjugated enzymatic (chemical) and diffusion processes. The action of single enzyme as well as polyenzyme biosensors and biosensors based on chemically modified electrodes is studied. The modeling of biosensors that contain perforated membranes and multipart mass transport profiles is critically investigated. Furthermore, it is fully described how signals can be biochemically amplified, how cascades of enzymatic substrate conversion are triggered, and how signals are processed via a chemometric approach and artificial neuronal networks. The results of digital modeling are compared with both proximal analytical solutions and experimental data.
Das vorliegende Buch gibt eine kompakte Einführung in die Grundlagen der Festkörperphysik, wobei der Schwerpunkt auf den elektrischen und magnetischen…Materialeigenschaften liegt.Leser werden nicht nur die kompakte und anschauliche Herangehensweise schätzen, sondern auch die kurzen Abschnitte über die Forschungsgeschichte der Festkörperphysik, die mit wegweisenden Forschern wie Max Planck, Albert Einstein aber auch Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, Eugene Wigner oder Frederick Seitz verbunden ist. Diese helfen dabei, die Entwicklung der Festkörperphysik und ihre unterschiedlichen Theorien und Modelle verstehen und einordnen zu können. Das Buch richtet sich an Studierende der Physik, Ingenieurwissenschaften und Materialwissenschaften bis zum Bachelor. Es kann durch seine anschaulichen Erklärungen und seinen didaktischen Ansatz auch als motivierende Vorstufe und unterstützendes Begleitwerk beim Studium anspruchsvollerer Lehrbücher der Festkörperphysik benutzt werden. Die dritte Auflage enthält eine Reihe von Erweiterungen, besonders im Kapitel über topologische Materialien.
Compound-Nuclear Reactions: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Compound-Nuclear Reactions and Related Topics CNR*18 (Springer Proceedings in Physics #254)
By David Brown, Walid Younes, Jutta Escher, Yoram Alhassid, Lee A. Bernstein, Carla Fröhlich, Patrick Talou. 2021
The Compound-Nuclear Reaction and Related Topics (CNR*) international workshop series was initiated in 2007 with a meeting near Yosemite National…Park. It has since been held in Bordeaux (2009), Prague (2011), Sao Paulo (2013), Tokyo (2015), and Berkeley, California (2018). The workshop series brings together experts in nuclear theory, experiment, data evaluations, and applications, and fosters interactions among these groups. Topics of interest include: nuclear reaction mechanisms, optical model, direct reactions and the compound nucleus, pre-equilibrium reactions, fusion and fission, cross section measurements (direct and indirect methods), Hauser-Feshbach theory (limits and extensions), compound-nuclear decays, particle and gamma emission, level densities, strength functions, nuclear structure for compound-nuclear reactions, nuclear energy, nuclear astrophysics, and other topics. This peer-reviewed proceedings volume presents papers and poster summaries from the 6th International Workshop on Compound-Nuclear Reactions and Related Topics CNR*18, held on September 24-28, 2018, at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA.
By Domenico D’Alessandro. 2021
The introduction of control theory in quantum mechanics has created a rich, new interdisciplinary scientific field, which is producing novel…insight into important theoretical questions at the heart of quantum physics. Exploring this emerging subject, Introduction to Quantum Control and Dynamics presents the mathematical concepts and fundamental physics behind the analysis and control of quantum dynamics, emphasizing the application of Lie algebra and Lie group theory. To advantage students, instructors and practitioners, and since the field is highly interdisciplinary, this book presents an introduction with all the basic notions in the same place. The field has seen a large development in parallel with the neighboring fields of quantum information, computation and communication. The author has maintained an introductory level to encourage course use. After introducing the basics of quantum mechanics, the book derives a class of models for quantum control systems from fundamental physics. It examines the controllability and observability of quantum systems and the related problem of quantum state determination and measurement. The author also uses Lie group decompositions as tools to analyze dynamics and to design control algorithms. In addition, he describes various other control methods and discusses topics in quantum information theory that include entanglement and entanglement dynamics. Changes to the New Edition: New Chapter 4: Uncontrollable Systems and Dynamical Decomposition New section on quantum control landscapes A brief discussion of the experiments that earned the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physics Corrections and revised concepts are made to improve accuracy Armed with the basics of quantum control and dynamics, readers will invariably use this interdisciplinary knowledge in their mathematics, physics and engineering work.
By Angelo Vulpiani, Andrea Puglisi, Massimo Cencini, Davide Vergni. 2021
This book offers an informal, easy-to-understand account of topics in modern physics and mathematics. The focus is, in particular, on…statistical mechanics, soft matter, probability, chaos, complexity, and models, as well as their interplay. The book features 28 key entries and it is carefully structured so as to allow readers to pursue different paths that reflect their interests and priorities, thereby avoiding an excessively systematic presentation that might stifle interest. While the majority of the entries concern specific topics and arguments, some relate to important protagonists of science, highlighting and explaining their contributions. Advanced mathematics is avoided, and formulas are introduced in only a few cases. The book is a user-friendly tool that nevertheless avoids scientific compromise. It is of interest to all who seek a better grasp of the world that surrounds us and of the ideas that have changed our perceptions.
Deformations of Spacetime Symmetries: Gravity, Group-Valued Momenta, and Non-Commutative Fields (Lecture Notes in Physics #986)
By Michele Arzano, Jerzy Kowalski-Glikman. 2021
This monograph provides an introduction to deformations of Poincaré symmetries focusing on models with a Lie group momentum space and…associated non-commutative space-times. The emphasis is put on the emergence of such structures from quantum gravity, their mathematical features described in terms of Hopf algebras and applications to particle kinematics and field theory. Part I of this work focuses on the link between gravity and deformed symmetries in the case of 2+1 and 3+1 space-time dimensions. Part II is devoted to the description of classical particles with group valued momenta, their phase spaces and kinematics. The last part of these notes provides an introduction to the basic features of classical and quantum field theory on κ-Minkowski space-time, the prototypical example of non-commutative space-time exhibiting deformed Poincaré symmetry. The text, being the first providing a detailed overview of these topics, is primarily intended for researchers and graduate students interested in non-commutative field theories and quantum gravity phenomenology.