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Establishing Quantum Physics in Berlin: Einstein and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics, 1917–1922 (SpringerBriefs in History of Science and Technology)
By Hubert Goenner, Giuseppe Castagnetti. 2020
This book explores Albert Einstein’s move to Berlin and the establishment of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics under his…directorship. Einstein’s call to Berlin was supported by a group of prominent physicists, including Fritz Haber, Walter Nernst, Max Planck, Heinrich Rubens, Emil Warburg, and the young astronomer Erwin Freundlich, in the expectation that Einstein and the institute would take the lead in advancing quantum physics in its early phase. Examining both the abortive attempt and the successful opening of the institute in 1917, it also discusses in detail the institute’s activities up to 1922, when Einstein relinquished the directorship, as well as his reasons for stepping down. The final chapter evaluates the institute’s activities and its role in the advancement of physics. In the end, the institute only partially fulfilled the expectations of its promoters because of the waning interest in quantum physics on the part of its director and board, and also because of Einstein’s refusal to exert scientific leadership. The book is part of a series of publications in the SpringerBriefs series on the early network of quantum physics.
By Franco Strocchi. 2021
The third edition of the by now classic reference on rigorous analysis of symmetry breaking in both classical and quantum…field theories adds new topics of relevance, in particular the effect of dynamical Coulomb delocalization, by which boundary conditions give rise to volume effects and to energy/mass gap in the Goldstone spectrum (plasmon spectrum, Anderson superconductivity, Higgs phenomenon). The book closes with a discussion of the physical meaning of global and local gauge symmetries and their breaking, with attention to the effect of gauge group topology in QCD. From the reviews of the first edition: It is remarkable to see how much material can actually be presented in a rigorous way (incidentally, many of the results presented are due to Strocchi himself), yet this is largely ignored, the original heuristic derivations being, as a rule, more popular. - At each step he strongly emphasizes the physical meaning and motivation of the various notions introduced [...] a book that fills a conspicuous gap in the literature, and does it rather well. It could also be a good basis for a graduate course in mathematical physics. J.-P. Antoine, Physicalia 28/2, 2006 Despite many accounts in popular textbooks and a widespread belief, the phenomenon is rather subtle, requires an infinite set of degrees of freedom and an advanced mathematical setting of the system under investigation. [...] The mathematically oriented graduate student will certainly benefit from this thorough, rigorous and detailed investigation. G. Roepstorff, Zentralblatt MATH, Vol. 1075, 2006 From the reviews of the second edition: This second edition of Strocchi’s Symmetry Breaking presents a complete, generalized and highly rigorous discussion of the subject, based on a formal analysis of conditions necessary for the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking to occur in classical systems, as well as in quantum systems. […] This book is specifically recommended for mathematical physicists interested in a deeper and rigorous understanding of the subject, and it should be mandatory for researchers studying the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking. S. Hajjawi, Mathematical Reviews, 2008
By Arthur E. Smith. 1989
The conquest of Earth's moon was merely a precursor to a more dramatic step forward, which will take men and…women to an outpost that might eventually become a second home for the human race. Mars: The Next Step illustrates how the only feasible colonization of another planet in our solar system will be on Mars. The author addresses the various questions surrounding this theory with frank scientific caution that in no way obscures his vigorous enthusiasm and, above all, optimism for mankind's future in space. This vivid and entertaining book explores "terraforming" (planetary engineering), which could turn Mars into a more congenial environment for humans, both in terms of changing the harsh climate of the planet and the production of plants able to thrive there by means of genetic engineering. The book includes numerous diagrams of possible manned spacecraft, along with color pictures of Mars taken on previous unmanned missions.
By Joseph W. Goodman. 1996
This text applies the mathematical models of Fourier analysis to the analysis and synthesis of optical systems. These mathematical tools…provide insights into the capabilities and limitations of optical systems in both imaging and information processing, and lead to many different applications.
By Alexander Fridman, Lawrence A. Kennedy. 2021
Plasma Physics and Engineering presents basic and applied knowledge on modern plasma physics, plasma chemistry, and plasma engineering for senior…undergraduate and graduate students as well as for scientists and engineers working in academia; research labs; and industry with plasmas, laser and, combustion systems. This is a unique book providing a clear fundamental introduction to all aspects of modern plasma science, describing all electric discharges applied today from vacuum to atmospheric pressure and higher, from thermal plasma sources to essentially cold non-equilibrium discharges. A solutions manual is available for adopting professors, which is helpful in relevant university courses. Provides a lucid introduction to virtually all aspects of modern plasma science and technology Contains an extensive database on plasma kinetics and thermodynamics Includes many helpful numerical formulas for practical calculations, as well as numerous problems and concepts This revised edition includes new material on atmospheric pressure discharges, micro discharges, and different types of discharges in liquids Prof. Alexander Fridman is Nyheim Chair Professor of Drexel University and Director of C. & J. Nyheim Plasma Institute. His research focuses on plasma approaches to biology and medicine, to material treatment, fuel conversion, and environmental control. Prof. Fridman has almost 50 years of plasma research in national laboratories and universities of Russia, France, and the United States. He has published 8 books, and received numerous honors for his work, including Stanley Kaplan Distinguished Professorship in Chemical Kinetics and Energy Systems, George Soros Distinguished Professorship in Physics, the State Prize of the USSR, Plasma Medicine Award, Kurchatov Prize, Reactive Plasma Award, and Plasma Chemistry Award. Prof. Lawrence A. Kennedy is Dean of Engineering Emeritus and Professor of Mechanical Engineering Emeritus at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Professor of Mechanical Engineering Emeritus at the Ohio State University. His research focuses on chemically reacting flows and plasma processes. He is the author of more than 300 archival publications and 2 books, the editor of three monographs and served as Editor–in-Chief of the International Journal of Experimental Methods in Thermal and Fluid Science. Professor Kennedy was the Ralph W. Kurtz Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering at OSU and the Stanley Kaplan University Scholar in Plasma Physics at UIC. Prof. Kennedy is also the recipient of numerous awards such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Heat Transfer Memorial Award (2008), and the Ralph Coats Roe Award from ASEE (1993). He is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Physical Society, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
By Hui Zhai. 2021
The field of ultracold atomic physics has developed rapidly during the last two decades, and currently encompasses a broad range…of topics in physics, with a variety of important applications in topics ranging from quantum computing and simulation to quantum metrology, and can be used to probe fundamental many-body effects such as superconductivity and superfluidity. Beginning with the underlying and including the most cutting-edge experimental developments, this textbook covers essential topics such as Bose-Einstein condensation of alkali atoms, studies of BEC-BCS crossover in degenerate Fermi gas, synthetic gauge fields and Hubbard models, and many-body localization and dynamical gauge fields. Key physical concepts, such as symmetry and universality highlight the connections between different systems, and theory is developed with plain derivations supported by experimental results. This self-contained and modern text will be invaluable for researchers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates studying cold atom physics, from both a theoretical and experimental perspective.
By Sharon Ann Holgate. 2021
Keeping the mathematics to a minimum yet losing none of the required rigor, Understanding Solid State Physics, Second Edition clearly…explains basic physics principles to provide a firm grounding in the subject. This new edition has been fully updated throughout, with recent developments and literature in the field, including graphene and the use of quasicrystalline materials, in addition to featuring new journalistic boxes and the reciprocal lattice. The author underscores the technological applications of the physics discussed and emphasizes the multidisciplinary nature of scientific research. After introducing students to solid state physics, the text examines the various ways in which atoms bond together to form crystalline and amorphous solids. It also describes the measurement of mechanical properties and the means by which the mechanical properties of solids can be altered or supplemented for particular applications. The author discusses how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the periodic array of atoms that make up a crystal and how solids react to heat on both atomic and macroscopic scales. She then focuses on conductors, insulators, semiconductors, and superconductors, including some basic semiconductor devices. The final chapter addresses the magnetic properties of solids as well as applications of magnets and magnetism. This accessible textbook provides a useful introduction to solid state physics for undergraduates who feel daunted by a highly mathematical approach. By relating the theories and concepts to practical applications, it shows how physics is used in the real world. Key features: Fully updated throughout, with new journalistic boxes and recent applications Uses an accessible writing style and format, offering journalistic accounts of interesting research, worked examples, self-test questions, and a helpful glossary of frequently used terms Highlights various technological applications of physics, from locomotive lights to medical scanners to USB flash drives
Solid State Gas Sensors - Industrial Application (Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors #11)
By Maximilian Fleischer, Mirko Lehmann. 2012
Gas sensor products are very often the key to innovations in the fields of comfort, security, health, environment, and energy…savings. This compendium focuses on what the research community labels as solid state gas sensors, where a gas directly changes the electrical properties of a solid, serving as the primary signal for the transducer. It starts with a visionary approach to how life in future buildings can benefit from the power of gas sensors. The requirements for various applications, such as for example the automotive industry, are then discussed in several chapters. Further contributions highlight current trends in new sensing principles, such as the use of nanomaterials and how to use new sensing principles for innovative applications in e.g. meteorology. So as to bring together the views of all the different groups needed to produce new gas sensing applications, renowned industrial and academic representatives report on their experiences and expectations in research, applications and industrialisation.
This book covers a wide range of topics on work function and band alignment, from the basics to practical examples.…Work function and band alignment determine electric properties at the interface including surfaces, such as electron emission, the Schottky barrier height, and ohmic contact. Basic physics is used to systematically explain how to adjust and measure work function and how to modify the band alignment required for controlling work function in functional materials and electrodes. Methods introduced in the book help to improve device performance and to solve the problems of controlling the voltage and efficiency of devices in a great variety of applications, including electronic devices, optical devices such as displays, and energy devices such as solar cells and batteries. Understanding the technical methods necessary for controlling work function and band alignment can help to solve problems such as non-ohmic contact at source–electrode or drain–electrode interfaces in metal–oxide–silicon structures, which directly contributes to improving power saving and reducing heat generation in computers.
By M. A. Wahab. 2021
This book aims at enhancing the understanding of topics in crystallography through solving numerical problems. Designed into nine chapters on…major topics in crystallography, the book deals with more than 600 carefully selected solved examples, problems, and multiple-choice questions. Unit cell composition, construction and calculations, Miller indices, structure factor calculations, and X-ray diffraction methods are some of the many useful topics discussed in this book. Each chapter begins with a brief theoretical explanation of the topic followed by solved numerical examples for further clarity on the subject. The topic “crystallography” is interdisciplinary in nature. Its rudimentary knowledge, therefore, is essential to the beginners in physics, chemistry, mathematics, molecular biology, geology, metallurgy, and particularly materials science and mineralogy. This book also is of immense value to senior undergraduate and graduate students of physics, chemistry, and other basic sciences.
21st Century Challenges in Chemical Crystallography I: History and Technical Developments (Structure and Bonding #185)
By D. Michael P. Mingos, Paul R. Raithby. 2020
This volume summarises recent developments and possible future directions for small molecule X-ray crystallography. It reviews specific areas of crystallography…which are rapidly developing and places them in a historical context. The interdisciplinary nature of the technique is emphasised throughout. It introduces and describes the chemical crystallographic and synchrotron facilities which have been at the cutting edge of the subject in recent decades. The introduction of new computer-based algorithms has proved to be very influential and stimulated and accelerated the growth of new areas of science. The challenges which will arise from the acquisition of ever larger databases are considered and the potential impact of artificial intelligence techniques stressed. Recent advances in the refinement and analysis of X-ray crystal structures are highlighted.In addition the recent developments in time resolved single crystal X-ray crystallography are discussed. Recent years have demonstrated how this technique has provided important mechanistic information on solid-state reactions and complements information from traditional spectroscopic measurements. The volume highlights how the prospect of being able to routinely “watch” chemical processes as they occur provides an exciting possibility for the future. Recent advances in X-ray sources and detectors that have also contributed to the possibility of dynamic single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods are presented. The coupling of crystallography and quantum chemical calculations provides detailed information about electron distributions in crystals and has resulted in a more detailed understanding of chemical bonding.The volume will be of interest to chemists and crystallographers with an interest in the synthesis, characterisation and physical and catalytic properties of solid-state materials. Postgraduate students entering the field will benefit from a historical introduction to the subject and a description of those techniques which are currently used. Since X-ray crystallography is used so widely in modern chemistry it will serve to alert senior chemists to those developments which will become routine in coming decades. It will also be of interest to the broad community of computational chemists who study chemical systems.
21st Century Challenges in Chemical Crystallography II: Structural Correlations and Data Interpretation (Structure and Bonding #186)
By D. Michael P. Mingos, Paul R. Raithby. 2020
This volume summarises recent developments and highlights new techniques which will define possible future directions for small molecule X-ray crystallography.…It provides an insight into how specific aspects of crystallography are developing and shows how they may interact or integrate with other areas of science.The development of more sophisticated equipment and the massive rise in computing power has made it possible to solve the three-dimensional structure of an organic molecule within hours if not minutes. This successful trajectory has resulted in the ability to study ever more complex molecules and use smaller and smaller crystals. The structural parameters for over a million organic and organometallic compounds are now archived in the most commonly used database and this wealth of information creates a new set of problems for future generations of scientists. The volume provides some insight into how users of crystallographic structural data banks can navigate their way through a world where “big data” has become the norm. The coupling of crystallography to quantum chemical calculations provides detailed information about electron distributions in crystals affording a much more detailed analysis of bonding than has been possible previously. In quantum crystallography, quantum mechanical wavefunctions are used to extract information about bonding and properties from the measured X-ray structure factors. The advent of quantum crystallography has resulted in form and structure factors derived from quantum mechanics which have been used in advanced refinement and wavefunction fitting. This volume describes how quantum mechanically derived atomic form factors and structure factors are constructed to allow the improved description of the diffraction experiment. It further discusses recent developments in this field and illustrates their applications with a wide range of examples.This volume will be of interest to chemists and crystallographers with an interest in the synthesis, characterisation and physical and catalytic properties of solid-state materials. It will also be relevant for the community of computational chemists who study chemical systems. Postgraduate students entering the field will benefit from a historical introduction to the way in which scientists have used the data derived from crystallography to develop new structural and bonding models.
By Volker Ziemann. 2021
This book introduces physics students to concepts and methods of finance. Despite being perceived as quite distant from physics, finance…shares a number of common methods and ideas, usually related to noise and uncertainties. Juxtaposing the key methods to applications in both physics and finance articulates both differences and common features, this gives students a deeper understanding of the underlying ideas. Moreover, they acquire a number of useful mathematical and computational tools, such as stochastic differential equations, path integrals, Monte-Carlo methods, and basic cryptology. Each chapter ends with a set of carefully designed exercises enabling readers to test their comprehension.
This book investigates several non-resonant inductive harvester architectures in order to find the magnet coil arrangement that generates the largest…power output. The book is useful as a step-by-step guide for readers unfamiliar with this form of energy harvesting, but who want to build their own system models to calculate the magnet motion and, from that, the power generation available for body-worn sensor systems. The detailed description of system model development will greatly facilitate experimental work with the aim of fabricating the design with the highest predicted power output. Based on the simulated optimal geometry, fabricated devices achieve an average power output of up to 43 mW during walking, an amount of power that can supply modern low-power, body-worn systems. Experiments were also carried out in industrial applications with power outputs up to 15 mW. In sum, researchers and engineers will find a step-by-step introduction to inductive harvesting and its modeling aspects for achieving optimal harvester designs in an efficient manner.
By Danilo Henrique Gomes, Ingrid Cruz. 2018
This book is for anyone with curiosity about reading the body language. It is a description of body reactions during…a conversations and how we can read them with their meanings singular. Also, this book is for the ones who want to improve their abilities to help those in need with depression, anxiety and deep sadness. This is the perfect reading for those who feel like getting to know more about this fascinating content.
By Danilo Henrique Gomes. 2018
Le cerveau est sans aucun doute une machine incroyable et unique, mais il n'était pas programmé pour toujours agir de…manière cachée. Même si vous pouvez mémoriser tous les détails de ce livre, soyez très prudent. Pas toujours ce qu'il semble, c'est. Une personne qui reste oisive tout en écoutant ses histoires peut être désintéressée, mais peut aussi être simplement froide. Le contexte dans lequel l'individu est inséré doit toujours être pris en compte. Avoir une bonne observation et interpréter facilement le langage corporel est une compétence dominée par peu et peut être une bonne arme utilisée pour le bien ou le mal.
Detectando Emociones - Descubra los poderes del lenguaje corporal.: Descubra los poderes del lenguaje corporal.
By Danilo Henrique Gomes, Susan Magalhães. 2018
Aprenda a través de este libro, a “detectar” las emociones escondidas en cada gesto humano. Fruto de muchas búsquedas, “Detectando…Emociones” es un óptimo libro para quien quiera aprender, de forma rápida e directa, los significados escondidos por atrás de cada movimiento humano. Mas allá de eso también aprenda, a través de la Proxémica, el significado escondido por atrás de la distancia que un individuo permanece en relación con otro durante una simple conversación. Qué tal conocer también las técnicas usadas para descubrir una mentira. Ellas también están presentes en este libro. Aprenda 17 señales sospechosas que revelan una mentira. Esto y mucho más usted encontrará en las páginas de este humilde libro. Ciencia pura, sin complicaciones.
By Michael R. Stern. 2020
Como se diz não para o Presidente dos Estados Unidos quando ele lhe pede para parar uma guerra nuclear? Depois…que Fritz Russell descobriu que a porta da sua sala de aulas era um portal através do espaço e do tempo, ele ajudou os Estados Unidos a resolver uma emergência na política internacional. Agora o presidente quer que ele use o portal para evitar a ameaça vinda de uma nação do Oriente Médio, que está prestes a desenvolver armas nucleares.
By Ralph Leighton, Richard P. Feynman, Michael A. Gottlieb. 2013
"FeynmanOCOs Tips on Physics" is a delightful collection of Richard P. FeynmanOCOs insights and an essential companion to his legendary…"Feynman Lectures on Physics. "With characteristic flair, insight, and humor, Feynman discusses topics physics students often struggle with and offers valuable tips on addressing them. Included here are three lectures on problem-solving and a lecture on inertial guidance omitted from "The Feynman Lectures on Physics. " An enlightening memoir by Matthew Sands and oral history interviews with Feynman and his Caltech colleagues provide firsthand accounts of the origins of FeynmanOCOs landmark lecture series. Also included are incisive and illuminating exercises originally developed to supplement "The Feynman Lectures on Physics," by Robert B. Leighton and Rochus E. Vogt. "FeynmanOCOs Tips on Physics" was co-authored by Michael A. Gottlieb and Ralph Leighton to provide students, teachers, and enthusiasts alike an opportunity to learn physics from some of its greatest teachers, the creators of "The Feynman Lectures on Physics. ""
By Ruth Durrer. 2021
The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the radiation left over from the Big Bang, is arguably the most important topic in…modern cosmology. Its theory and observation have revolutionized cosmology from an order-of-magnitude science to a precision science. This graduate textbook describes CMB physics from first principles in a detailed yet pedagogical way, assuming only that the reader has a working knowledge of General Relativity. Among the changes in this second edition are new chapters on non-Gaussianities in the CMB and on large-scale structure, and extended discussions on lensing and baryon acoustic oscillations, topics that have developed significantly in the last decade. Discussions of CMB experiments have been updated from WMAP data to the new Planck data. The CMB success story in estimating cosmological parameters is then treated in detail, conveying the beauty of the interplay of theoretical understanding and precise experimental measurements.