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Stochastic Approaches to Electron Transport in Micro- and Nanostructures (Modeling and Simulation in Science, Engineering and Technology)
By Ivan Dimov, Siegfried Selberherr, Mihail Nedjalkov. 2021
The book serves as a synergistic link between the development of mathematical models and the emergence of stochastic (Monte Carlo)…methods applied for the simulation of current transport in electronic devices. Regarding the models, the historical evolution path, beginning from the classical charge carrier transport models for microelectronics to current quantum-based nanoelectronics, is explicatively followed. Accordingly, the solution methods are elucidated from the early phenomenological single particle algorithms applicable for stationary homogeneous physical conditions up to the complex algorithms required for quantum transport, based on particle generation and annihilation. The book fills the gap between monographs focusing on the development of the theory and the physical aspects of models, their application, and their solution methods and monographs dealing with the purely theoretical approaches for finding stochastic solutions of Fredholm integral equations.
By Preston B. Nichols. 1992
Discover the truth about time. This book chronicles the most amazing and secretive research project in recorded history. We all…know something is out there, we're just not sure exactly what. This book begins to provide some solid clues.
By Tapan Mukerji, Dario Grana, Philippe Doyen. 2021
Seismic reservoir characterization aims to build 3-dimensional models of rock and fluid properties, including elastic and petrophysical variables, to describe and monitor the state…of the subsurface for hydrocarbon exploration and production and for CO₂ sequestration. Rock physics modeling and seismic wave propagation theory provide a set of physical equations to predict the seismic response of subsurface rocks based on their elastic and petrophysical properties. However, the rock and fluid properties are generally unknown and surface geophysical measurements are often the only available data to constrain reservoir models far away from well control. Therefore, reservoir properties are generally estimated from geophysical data as a solution of an inverse problem, by combining rock physics and seismic models with inverse theory and geostatistical methods, in the context of the geological modeling of the subsurface. A probabilistic approach to the inverse problem provides the probability distribution of rock and fluid properties given the measured geophysical data and allows quantifying the uncertainty of the predicted results. The reservoir characterization problem includes both discrete properties, such as facies or rock types, and continuous properties, such as porosity, mineral volumes, fluid saturations, seismic velocities and density. Seismic Reservoir Modeling: Theory, Examples and Algorithms presents the main concepts and methods of seismic reservoir characterization. The book presents an overview of rock physics models that link the petrophysical properties to the elastic properties in porous rocks and a review of the most common geostatistical methods to interpolate and simulate multiple realizations of subsurface properties conditioned on a limited number of direct and indirect measurements based on spatial correlation models. The core of the book focuses on Bayesian inverse methods for the prediction of elastic petrophysical properties from seismic data using analytical and numerical statistical methods. The authors present basic and advanced methodologies of the current state of the art in seismic reservoir characterization and illustrate them through expository examples as well as real data applications to hydrocarbon reservoirs and CO₂ sequestration studies.
An “extraordinary guide to the hidden secrets of modern man-made miracles . . . Highly recommended” —from the author of Froth!: The…Science of Beer (Midwest Book Review).Ever wonder how a graceful and slender bridge can support enormous loads over truly astonishing spans? Why domes and free-standing arches survive earthquakes that flatten the rest of a city?Physicist Mark Denny looks at the large structures around us—tall buildings, long bridges, and big dams—and explains how they were designed and built and why they sometimes collapse, topple, or burst.Denny uses clear, accessible language to explain the physics behind such iconic structures as the Parthenon, the Eiffel Tower, the Forth Rail Bridge in Edinburgh, and Hoover Dam. His friendly approach allows readers to appreciate the core principles that keep these engineering marvels upright without having to master complex mathematical equations.Employing history, humor, and simple physics to consider such topics as when to use screws or nails, what trusses are, why iron beams are often I-shaped, and why medieval cathedrals have buttresses, Denny succeeds once again in making physics fun.Praise for Mark Denny“Denny’s wry humor is fun to read and made me laugh out loud.” —Mark Kidger, author of Astronomical Enigmas“Denny largely sheds the complexity of mathematical constructs, distilling their most salient features into a more qualitative understanding of radar and sonar systems.” —Choice“Indeed, Denny’s writing is anything but dry and boring. He adeptly explains complex subject matter and does so with relatively simple language and minimal use of symbolic notation.” —Bat Research News
By Philip Pond. 2021
This book presents an exciting new theory of time for a world built on hyper-fast digital media networks. Computers have…changed the human social experience enormously. We’re becoming familiar with many of the macro changes, but we rarely consider the complex, underlying mechanics of how a technology interacts with our social, political and economic worlds. And we cannot explain how the mechanics of a technology are being translated into social influence unless we understand the role of time in that process. Offering an original reconsideration of temporality, Philip Pond explains how super-powerful computers and global webs of connection have remade time through speed. The book introduces key developments in network time theory and explains their importance, before presenting a new model of time which seeks to reconcile the traditionally separate subjective and objective approaches to time theory and measurement.
By Alexey A. Petrov. 2021
This is the first book to discuss the search for new physics in charged leptons, neutrons, and quarks in one…coherent volume. The area of indirect searches for new physics is highly topical; though no new physics particles have yet been observed directly at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, the methods described in this book will provide researchers with the necessary tools to keep searching for new physics.It describes the lines of research that attempt to identify quantum effects of new physics particles in low-energy experiments, in addition to detailing the mathematical basis and theoretical and phenomenological methods involved in the searches, whilst making a clear distinction between model-dependent and model-independent methods employed to make predictions. This book will be a valuable guide for graduate students and early-career researchers in particle and high energy physics who wish to learn about the techniques used in modern predictions of new physics effects at low energies, whilst also serving as a reference for researchers at other levels. Key features:• Takes an accessible, pedagogical approach suitable for graduate students and those seeking an overview of this new and fast-growing field• Illustrates common theoretical trends seen in different subfields of particle physics• Valuable both for researchers in the phenomenology of elementary particles and for experimentalists
By Riccardo Giacconi. 2008
A Noble Prize–winning Italian astrophysicist shares his scientific autobiography and the history of the development of contemporary astronomy.The discovery of…x-rays continues to have a profound effect on the field of astronomy. It has opened the cosmos to exploration in ways previously unimaginable, and fundamentally altered the methods for pursuing information about outer space. Nobel Prize–winner Riccardo Giacconi’s highly personal account of the birth and evolution of x-ray astronomy reveals the science, people, and institutional settings behind this important and influential discipline.Part history, part memoir, and part cutting-edge science, Secrets of the Hoary Deep is the tale of x-ray astronomy from its infancy through what can only be called its early adulthood. It also details how the tools, techniques, and practices designed to support and develop x-ray astronomy were transferred to optical, infrared, and radio astronomy, drastically altering the face of modern space exploration. Giacconi relates the basic techniques developed at American Science and Engineering and explains how, where, and by whom the science was advanced.From the first Earth-orbiting x-ray satellite, Uhuru, to the opening of the Space Telescope Science Institute and the lift-off of the Hubble Space Telescope to the construction of the Very Large Telescope, Giaconni recounts the ways in which the management methods and scientific methodology behind successful astronomy projects came to set the standards of operations for all subsequent space- and Earth-based observatories. Along the way he spares no criticism and holds back no praise, detailing individual as well as institutional failures and successes, reflecting upon how far astronomy has come and how far it has yet to go.
By Heino Falcke. 2021
A fascinating and thought-provoking investigation into the nature of black holes—a blend of the spiritual, the philosophical, and the scientific—from…the premier German astrophysicist who made history in 2019, capturing the first one on film.A Light in the Darkness is the story of one of the greatest astrological achievements of all time: the first photographic evidence of black holes in April 2019, and its significance for humanity, told by the scientist who accomplished it. A man of faith ordained in the Protestant tradition, Heino Falcke wrestles with the ways in which black holes force us to confront the boundary where human life ends and the celestial begins. He also ponders why black holes are difficult for most of us to understand—comparing it to our inability to envisage our own inevitable death.Black holes develop in outer space when a massive star dies, and its matter is condensed. That extreme amount of mass contained in a small space generates a gigantic amount of gravitational force, allowing the black hole to suck up everything that comes near, including light. These astronomical wonders are the subject of our greatest scientific and philosophical theorizing—the journey to a black hole would be the journey to the end of time itself. In this way, Falcke regards them as the most exquisite representations of fear, death . . . and, surprisingly, the divine.Empirical and profound, A Light in the Darkness is the first work to examine both the physical nature and spiritual meaning of black holes, those astrophysical mysteries Falcke, calls “the epitome of merciless destruction.”
By Dan Gutman. 2021
From the best-selling author behind My Weird School: a quirky new biography series that casts fresh light on high-interest historic…figures. Did you know that Albert Einstein was a high school dropout, and that he failed his physics class when he finally made it to college? Or that when he died, his brain and eyeballs were removed from his body? Ever wondered why his hair looked so wild? Siblings Paige and Turner do—and they’ve collected some of the kookiest and most unusual facts about the world-famous scientist, from his childhood and school days through his time studying relativity and working on the atomic bomb. Narrated by the two spirited siblings and animated by Allison Steinfeld’s upbeat illustrations, Albert Einstein Was a Dope? expertly balances authoritative information with Dan Gutman’s signature zany humor.
By Chiara Marletto. 2021
From a young British scientist, a groundbreaking exploration of a radically different approach to physicsThere is a vast class of…things that science has so far almost entirely neglected. They are central to the understanding of physical reality both at an everyday level and at the level of the most fundamental phenomena in physics, yet have traditionally been assumed to be impossible to incorporate into fundamental scientific explanations. They are facts not about what is (the actual) but about what could be (counterfactuals).According to physicist Chiara Marletto, laws about things being possible or impossible may generate an alternative way of providing explanations. This fascinating, far-reaching approach holds promise for revolutionizing the way fundamental physics is formulated and for providing essential tools to face existing technological challenges--from delivering the next generation of information-processing devices beyond the universal quantum computer to designing AIs. Each chapter in the book delineates how an existing vexed open problem in science can be solved by this radically different approach and it is augmented by short fictional stories that explicate the main point of the chapter. As Marletto demonstrates, contemplating what is possible can give us a more complete and hopeful picture of the physical world.
Size-Dependent Continuum Mechanics Approaches: Theory and Applications (Springer Tracts in Mechanical Engineering)
By Esmaeal Ghavanloo, S. Ahmad Fazelzadeh, Francesco Marotti de Sciarra. 2021
This book offers a comprehensive and timely report of size-dependent continuum mechanics approaches. Written by scientists with worldwide reputation and…established expertise, it covers the most recent findings, advanced theoretical developments and computational techniques, as well as a range of applications, in the field of nonlocal continuum mechanics. Chapters are concerned with lattice-based nonlocal models, Eringen’s nonlocal models, gradient theories of elasticity, strain- and stress-driven nonlocal models, and peridynamic theory, among other topics. This book provides researchers and practitioners with extensive and specialized information on cutting-edge theories and methods, innovative solutions to current problems and a timely insight into the behavior of some advanced materials and structures. It also offers a useful reference guide to senior undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering, materials science, and applied physics.
By Mark Denny. 2007
A deep dive into pivotal technological advances in areas from warfare to time measurement. “A wonderful combination of history and…physics.” —Mark Kidger, author of Astronomical EnigmasIngenium is medieval English vernacular for “an ingenious contrivance.” In this fascinating book, physicist Mark Denny considers five such contrivances—the bow and arrow, the waterwheel, the counterpoise siege engine (including the trebuchet), the pendulum clock anchor escapement, and the centrifugal governor—and demonstrates how they literally changed the world. Interweaving an entertaining narrative with diagrams, equations, and drawings, Denny shares the history of each device, explains the physics behind it, and describes how it was used, how it evolved, and why it is significant in today’s world.Consider the bow and arrow, which transformed warfare by allowing soldiers to attack their enemies at a safe distance. Or the waterwheel, which enabled Old World civilizations to grind grain, pump water, and power machines during a period of extreme labor shortages. Medieval warriors engaged in an early form of biological warfare by using the trebuchet to launch dead animals or plague-ridden corpses over enormous fortress walls. The pendulum clock forever enslaved modern humans to the clock by linking the accurate measure of time to the burdens of schedules, deadlines, promptness, and tardiness. And the centrifugal governor gave rise to an entire branch of modern engineering science: feedback control.Reflecting on the inventors of these ancient machines and the times in which they lived, Denny concludes with thought-provoking observations about inventors, inventiveness, genius, and innovation. Whether you dream of making a better mousetrap or launching pumpkins into the stratosphere, Ingenium will tickle your fancy.
By C. Rene James. 2011
A fascinating look at the scientific mysteries behind our everyday world—from night, light and gravity to our cosmic home and…wonder itself.So much of what surrounds us feels familiar and mundane—until we look closer. C. Renée James opens the Universe to fantastical contemplation in this whimsical tour of seven everyday experiences: night, light, stuff, gravity, time, home, and wonder. James introduces each of these seven wonders with a simple question that appears to be easily answered. The questions are deceptive, though. Although we need light to see, there’s much more to it than meets the eye. When you get down to the atomic level, physical things are made of almost entirely empty space—99.9% nothing. And James’s contemplation of our place in the Universe shows that it’s not just a place to hang your hat—and that there’s really nothing else like it.James’s accessible discussion uses common analogies and entertaining illustrations to explain historical discoveries and concepts such as relativity, antimatter, and the electromagnetic spectrum. Fun and edifying, Seven Wonders of the Universe That You Probably Took for Granted is an inviting introduction to secret knowledge of our everyday world.
By Clifford Swartz. 2003
From an award-winning teacher, “a delightful and instructive accessory to an introductory physics course” (Physics World).Physicists use “back-of-the-envelope” estimates to…check whether or not an idea could possibly be right. In many cases, the approximate solution is all that is needed. This compilation of 101 examples of back-of-the-envelope calculations celebrates a quantitative approach to solving physics problems. Drawing on a lifetime of physics research and nearly three decades as the editor of The Physics Teacher, Clifford Swartz—a winner of two awards from the American Association of Physics Teachers—provides simple, approximate solutions to physics problems that span a broad range of topics. What note do you get when you blow across the top of a Coke bottle? Could you lose weight on a diet of ice cubes? How can a fakir lie on a bed of nails without getting hurt? Does draining water in the northern hemisphere really swirl in a different direction than its counterpart below the equator?In each case, only a few lines of arithmetic and a few natural constants solve a problem to within a few percent. Covering such subjects as astronomy, magnetism, optics, sound, heat, mechanics, waves, and electricity, this book provides a rich source of material for teachers and anyone interested in the physics of everyday life.“This is a book that will help make the study of physics fun and relevant.” —Mark P. Silverman, author of Waves and Grains: Reflections on Light and Learning
By Guido Tonelli. 2019
A breakout bestseller in Italy, now available for American readers for the first time, Genesis: The Story of How Everything…Began is a short, humanistic tour of the origins of the universe, earth, and life—drawing on the latest discoveries in physics to explain the seven most significant moments in the creation of the cosmos.Curiosity and wonderment about the origins of the universe are at the heart of our experience of the world. From Hesiod’s Chaos, described in his poem about the origins of the Greek gods, Theogony, to today’s mind-bending theories of the multiverse, humans have been consumed by the relentless pursuit of an answer to one awe inspiring question: What exactly happened during those first moments?Guido Tonelli, the acclaimed, award-winning particle physicist and a central figure in the discovery of the Higgs boson (the “God particle”), reveals the extraordinary story of our genesis—from the origins of the universe, to the emergence of life on Earth, to the birth of human language with its power to describe the world. Evoking the seven days of biblical creation, Tonelli takes us on a brisk, lively tour through the evolution of our cosmos and considers the incredible challenges scientists face in exploring its mysteries. Genesis both explains the fundamental physics of our universe and marvels at the profound wonder of our existence.
By Robert A. Millikan. 2020
Robert Millikan tells his story in his own words. “This book represents an effort to record and appraise some of…the changes which have come under the eyes of one particular observer of the rapidly changing scene. I shall begin, however, in 1825, some forty years before my birth.”“The Autobiography of Robert A. Millikan is one of the most outstanding works of its kind done by an American man of science. The treatment is lucid and brings out in clear relief not only the activities of the man himself but of those, and there are many, with whom he has associated and collaborated in the fields of teaching, research, and administration. The autobiography is that of a dynamic personality associated with patience, persistence and enthusiasm. The treatment is free from egotism and refreshingly frank and forthright.” — B. J. Spence, American Journal of Physics“Robert Andrews Millikan is one of the most distinguished physicists in the world and his autobiography will interest not only the entire scientific world, but the reading public at large... It is refreshing and helpful for younger [scientific] workers to read... that only after many discouraging attempts did [Millikan’s] great researches on the determination of the electronic charge and his proof of the Einstein photoelectric law emerge.” — Robert S. Shankland, Physics Today“It is seldom that a man is so successful in getting his personality into his own writing about himself... The book is much more than the record of the life of one man,... it is a history of the physics of his time, and as such will find its place among the other histories of the most memorable decades that physics has yet experienced.” — P. W. Bridgman, Science
By George A. Anastassiou. 2021
This book includes constructive approximation theory; it presents ordinary and fractional approximations by positive sublinear operators, and high order approximation…by multivariate generalized Picard, Gauss–Weierstrass, Poisson–Cauchy and trigonometric singular integrals. Constructive and Computational Fractional Analysis recently is more and more in the center of mathematics because of their great applications in the real world. In this book, all presented is original work by the author given at a very general level to cover a maximum number of cases in various applications. The author applies generalized fractional differentiation techniques of Riemann–Liouville, Caputo and Canavati types and of fractional variable order to various kinds of inequalities such as of Opial, Hardy, Hilbert–Pachpatte and on the spherical shell. He continues with E. R. Love left- and right-side fractional integral inequalities. They follow fractional Landau inequalities, of left and right sides, univariate and multivariate, including ones for Semigroups. These are developed to all possible directions, and right-side multivariate fractional Taylor formulae are proven for the purpose. It continues with several Gronwall fractional inequalities of variable order. This book results are expected to find applications in many areas of pure and applied mathematics. As such this book is suitable for researchers, graduate students and seminars of the above disciplines, also to be in all science and engineering libraries.
By Dirk Puetzfeld, Peter A. Hogan. 2021
This book discusses some of the open questions addressed by researchers in general relativity. Photons and particles play important roles…in the theoretical framework, since they are involved in analyzing and measuring gravitational fields and in constructing mathematical models of gravitational fields of various types. The authors highlight this aspect covering topics such as the construction of models of Bateman electromagnetic waves and analogous gravitational waves, the studies of gravitational radiation in presence of a cosmological constant and the gravitational compass or clock compass for providing an operational way of measuring a gravitational field. The book is meant for advanced students and young researchers in general relativity, who look for an updated text which covers in depth the calculations and, equally, takes on new challenges. The reader, along the learning path, is stimulated by provocative examples interspersed in the text that help to find novel representations of the uses of particles and photons.
By Oleg V. Minin, Igor V. Minin. 2021
This book describes the recently-discovered artificially curved light beam known as the photonic hook. Self-bending of light, a long-time goal…of optical scientists, was realized in 2007 with the Airy beam, followed by the first demonstration of the photonic hook by the authors of this book and their collaborators in 2015 and experimentally in 2019. The photonic hook has curvature less than the wavelength, along with other unique features described in this book that are not shared by Airy-like beams, and so deepens our understanding of light propagation. This book discusses the general principles of artificial near-field structured curved light and the full-wave simulations of the photonic hook along with their experimental confirmation. The book goes on to show how the photonic hook has implications for acoustic and surface plasmon waves and as well as applications in nanoparticle manipulation.
This thesis reports advances in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, relating to the development of new techniques and components that enhance the…experimentalist’s control over the terahertz polarisation state produced by photoconductive emitters. It describes how utilising the dynamic magnetoelectric response at THz frequencies, in the form of electromagnons, can probe material properties at a transition between two magnetically ordered phases. Additionally, preliminary investigations into the properties of materials exposed to extreme terahertz optical electric fields are reported.The work presented in this thesis may have immediate impacts on the study of anisotropic media at THz frequencies, with photoconductive emitters and detectors being the most commonly used components for commercially available terahertz spectroscopy and imaging systems, and by providing a new way to study the nature of magnetic phase transitions in multiferroics. In the longer term the increased understanding of multiferroics yielded by ultrafast spectroscopic methods, including terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, may help develop new magnetoelectric and multiferroic materials for applications such as spintronics.