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Quantum Probability Theory, Psychology and Law: Modelling Legal Decision Making with Quantum Principles
By Bartosz W. Wojciechowski. 2024
This book provides the first consideration of quantum principles in legal decision making. It shows how quantum probability theory can…be applied to psychology and law to deepen our understanding of psychological and legal issues, suggesting a paradigm shift in the study of these areas. Written as an introduction to quantum probability theory for non-physicists, the book offers an accessible summary of how psychology can be applied to quantum phenomena for human decision making. It introduces psychologists and lawyers to fresh conceptual frameworks, including classical probability theory, classical statistics, data mining and quantum theory. Wojciechowski shows how quantum theory and concepts can be transferred to psychological research models, and can help to resolve previously unexplained psychological phenomena, influence scientific views, undermine traditional foundations of the legal system and result in the development of new research directions. Studies conducted by the author are used to show how problems facing legal decision making can be addressed in a completely new light with the application of quantum probability theory. This cutting-edge and innovative book will be of great interest to graduate students and researchers in the fields of forensic psychology and legal decision making, as well as legal professionals and legal scholars.
Proceedings of the 4th International Seminar on Science and Technology (Advances in Physics Research #7)
By Nov Irmawati Inda, Darmawati Darwis, Elisa Sesa, Pasjan Satrimafitrah. 2023
This is an open access book. ISST is an annual seminar organized regularly by Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences,…Tadulako University since 2018 in collaboration with University of Newcastle (Australia), University of Miyazaki (UoM), Physics Society of Indonesia, Indonesian Chemical Society (HKI) and Indonesian Mathematical Society (IndoMS). International seminar on science and technology aims to provide a high-level international forum for leading academicians, researchers, scientists, students, scholars, and practitioners to share the state of the art of knowledges, experiences, researches and applications on the aspect of advancement in Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry field.It is also serves to foster communication among academicians, researchers, scientists, students, scholars, and practitioners working in a wide variety of scientific areas with a common interest in improving science and technology in the field of mathematics, physics, and chemistry. Furthermore, this seminar can provide a premier interdisciplinary platform for academicians, researchers, scientists, students, scholars, and practitioners to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns as well as practical challenges encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry.This seminar has been virtually held since 2020 due to covid-19 pandemic and is continuing to hold virtually following the advice and guidelines from government. However, due to the antusiasm of participants to attend the seminar “face to face”, hence this seminar will be held using hybrid style seminar by following healthcare guideline for covid-19.
By Klaus Hentschel. 2023
Dieses Buch beschäftigt sich mit der Entstehungsgeschichte des komplexen Konzeptes von Photonen aus wissenschaftshistorischer, kognitionspsychologischer und naturwissenschaftlicher Sicht. Dabei werden…unter anderem sechs verschiedene mentale Modelle des Lichtquantums bzw. Photons diskutiert. Der Bogen wird vom Teilchenmodell Newtons, dem Singularitätsmodell Einsteins und Bohrs bis zum modernen Konzept der Quantisierung des elektromagnetischen Feldes in der Quantenelektrodynamik gespannt. Der Autor beschäftigt sich zuerst mit der Entwicklungsgeschichte des Photons innerhalb der modernen Physik ab 1900, bevor er zwölf Bedeutungsschichten des Photons ausgehend vom Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts präsentiert. Anschließend werden die mentalen Modelle des quantisierten Lichts diskutiert und das heutige Modell des Photons besprochen.Die deutlich erweiterte zweite Auflage des Buches wurde unter anderem durch zusätzliche Abschnitte über semiklassische Theorien, Dirac, QED und über die Feynman Lectures ergänzt. Ferner wurde das Kapitel über verschiedene Modelle der Begriffsentwicklung und den hier vertretenen Ansatz der Suche nach mentalen Modellen stark erweitert. Das Buch richtet sich sowohl an Naturwissenschaftler wie auch an Wissenschaftshistoriker und Andere, die sich mit der Begriffs- und Ideengeschichte von Konzepten auseinandersetzen.
By Priyamvada Natarajan. 2016
A theoretical astrophysicist explores the ideas that transformed our knowledge of the universe over the past century. The cosmos,…once understood as a stagnant place, filled with the ordinary, is now a universe that is expanding at an accelerating pace, propelled by dark energy and structured by dark matter. Priyamvada Natarajan, our guide to these ideas, is someone at the forefront of the research—an astrophysicist who literally creates maps of invisible matter in the universe. She not only explains for a wide audience the science behind these essential ideas but also provides an understanding of how radical scientific theories gain acceptance. The formation and growth of black holes, dark matter halos, the accelerating expansion of the universe, the echo of the big bang, the discovery of exoplanets, and the possibility of other universes—these are some of the puzzling cosmological topics of the early twenty-first century. Natarajan discusses why the acceptance of new ideas about the universe and our place in it has never been linear and always contested even within the scientific community. And she affirms that, shifting and incomplete as science always must be, it offers the best path we have toward making sense of our wondrous, mysterious universe. &“Part history, part science, all illuminating. If you want to understand the greatest ideas that shaped our current cosmic cartography, read this book.&”—Adam G. Riess, Nobel Laureate in Physics, 2011 &“A highly readable, insider&’s view of recent discoveries in astronomy with unusual attention to the instruments used and the human drama of the scientists.&”—Alan Lightman, author of The Accidental Universe and Einstein's Dream
By Paul Fleisher. 2019
Have you ever wondered why it seems like you are standing still - even though you are on a planet…that is moving through space? Albert Einstein wondered why. Do you know what the famous equation E=mc2 means? Einstein could have explained it Do you know why black holes exist? In this engaging book, author Paul Fleisher answers these and many more questions as he looks at the laws of relativity and quantum mechanics. With easy-to-understand concepts and experiments, readers are introduced to the basic principles of modern physics in an exciting way.
By Paul Fleisher. 2019
Have you ever wondered why a prism turns ordinary sunlight into a rainbow? Isaac Newton knew why. How can a…magnet be used to generate electricity? Michael Faraday could have told you. Can you explain how a toaster toasts bread? In this book, author Paul Fleisher answers these and many more questions as he looks at the laws that describe how waves behave. Through simple experiments, detailed illustrations, and concepts that are easy to understand, readers are introduced to the basic principles of light, electricity, and magnetism in a fun, exciting way.
By Omar Benhar. 2023
This book aims at providing an accessible, and yet comprehensive and self-contained discussion of compact stars. After a pedagogical introduction…to the physics of white dwarfs, the bulk of the book is devoted to the analysis of the structure and dynamics of neutron stars. A great deal of emphasis is placed on the dynamical models underlying the description of neutron star matter at microscopic level. The analysis of these models is inherently cross-disciplinary - from nuclear and particle physics to astrophysics and condensed matter physics – and the relevant concepts are introduced following a didactic approach, drawing largely on the historical development of the field. The impact of the latest experimental data, such as gravitational waves emissions, and the potential of future observational developments in the new era of multimessenger astronomy are extensively discussed. This volume is intended to provide PhD students in physics and astrophysics with solid foundations for their future research career. It is also a useful tool for the broader audience of more advanced readers, working in the fields of nuclear and particle physics as well as gravitational physics.
Photobiomodulation for the Brain: Photobiomodulation Therapy in Neurology and Neuropsychiatry (Synthesis Lectures on Biomedical Engineering)
By Farzad Salehpour, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Javad Mahmoudi, Farzin Kamari, Paolo Cassano, Michael Richard Hamblin. 2023
Photobiomodulation for the Brain: Photobiomodulation Therapy in Neurology and Neuropsychiatry collects scientific evidence covering a broad range of topics, including the…optimum dosimetry, treatment regimens, irradiation sites, irradiance and fluence, treatment times, and possible side effects of this neuromodulation therapy. Over the past two decades, brain photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy has been introduced as an innovative modality for stimulating neural activity to improve brain function and is predicted to become a promising strategy for neurorehabilitation in the coming years. This book introduces PBM therapy to the worldwide medical community, providing worthwhile scientific insights and promoting the acceptance of this field among neurologists, psychiatrists, neurorehabilitation practitioners, and physiotherapists, as well as neuroscience clinicians and researchers. From a physics point of view, scientists in the photonics, medical physics, and light-dosimetry fields will also benefit from the book.
This book offers supporting material for the comprehensive textbook Mathematical Physics—A Modern Introduction to Its Foundations authored by Sadri Hassani.…The book covers mathematical preliminaries and all of Part I in Hassani’s textbook. The subjects covered here include the key topics necessary for physicists to form a solid mathematical foundation: vectors and linear maps, algebras, operators, matrices, and spectral decomposition. In particular, the vector space concept is a central unifying theme in later chapters of Hassani’s textbook. Detailed solutions are provided to one third of the end-of-chapter exercises in the first six chapters of his text. The present volume helps upper-undergraduate and early postgraduate physics students deepen their understanding of the mathematics that they encounter in physics, learn physics more efficiently, and use mathematics with more confidence and creativity. The content is thus presented rigorously but remains accessible to physics students. New exercises are also proposed, some with solutions, some without, so that the total number of unsolved exercises remains unchanged. They are chosen to help explain difficult concepts, amplify key points in Hassani's textbook, or make further connections with applications in physics. Taken together with Hassani's work, the two form a self-contained set and the solutions make detailed reference to Hassani's text. The solutions also refer to other mathematics and physics textbooks, providing entry points to further literature that finds a useful place in the physicist's personal library.
By Florian Freistetter. 2019
Visit one hundred extraordinary stars that unveil the mysteries of the universe Our own Sun—a source of awe, myth, and…mystery for untold generations of sky-gazers—is just one of roughly two hundred billion trillion stars. Together, they&’re a window into the profoundest questions in physics—overturning, again and again, how we understand light, matter, time, and existence itself. Florian Freistetter explains all this and more, in brief, easy-to-read profiles of the hundred most history-making stars, inviting readers to gaze into the past and future of the universe alongside a stellar cast of scientists— from Annie Jump Cannon, who revolutionized how we classify the stars, to Dorrit Hoffleit, who first counted them. Enjoy your journey through the cosmos . . . GRB 080319B, the farthest we&’ve seen into space with the naked eye V1364 CYGNI, pivotal in the discovery of dark matter 72 Tauri, definitive evidence for Einstein&’s theory of relativity Algol, called the Demon Star for its mysterious blinking—and many more! Publisher&’s note: 100 Stars That Explain the Universe was previously published in hardcover as The Story of the Universe in 100 Stars.
By David Helfand. 2023
Atoms are unfathomably tiny. It takes fifteen million trillion of them to make up a single poppy seed—give or take…a few billion. And there’s hardly anything to them: atoms are more than 99.9999999999 percent empty space. Yet scientists have learned to count these slivers of near nothingness with precision and to peer into their internal states. In looking so closely, we have learned that atoms, because of their inimitable signatures and imperturbable internal clocks, are little archives holding the secrets of the past.David J. Helfand reconstructs the history of the universe—back to its first microsecond 13.8 billion years ago—with the help of atoms. He shows how, by using detectors and reactors, microscopes and telescopes, we can decode the tales these infinitesimal particles tell, answering questions such as: Is a medieval illustrated prayer book real or forged? How did maize cultivation spread from the highlands of central Mexico to New England? What was Earth’s climate like before humans emerged? Where can we find clues to identify the culprit in the demise of the dinosaurs? When did our planet and solar system form? Can we trace the births of atoms in the cores of massive stars or even glimpse the origins of the universe itself?A lively and inviting introduction to the building blocks of everything we know, The Universal Timekeepers demonstrates the power of science to unveil the mysteries of unreachably remote times and places.
By Jose C. Principe, Nanning Zheng, Badong Chen, Lujuan Dang. 2023
This book provides several efficient Kalman filters (linear or nonlinear) under information theoretic criteria. They achieve excellent performance in complicated…non-Gaussian noises with low computation complexity and have great practical application potential. The book combines all these perspectives and results in a single resource for students and practitioners in relevant application fields. Each chapter starts with a brief review of fundamentals, presents the material focused on the most important properties and evaluates comparatively the models discussing free parameters and their effect on the results. Proofs are provided at the end of each chapter. The book is geared to senior undergraduates with a basic understanding of linear algebra, signal processing and statistics, as well as graduate students or practitioners with experience in Kalman filtering.
By David Z Albert. 2023
From the celebrated author of Quantum Mechanics and Experience comes an original and exhilarating attempt at making sense of the…strange laws of quantum mechanics.A century ago, a brilliant circle of physicists around Niels Bohr argued that the search for an objective, realistic, and mechanical picture of the inner workings of the atom—the kind of picture that had previously been an ideal of classical physics—was doomed to fail. Today, there is widespread agreement among philosophers and physicists that those arguments were wrong. However, the question of what that picture might look like, and how it might fit into a comprehensive picture of physical reality, remains unsettled.In A Guess at the Riddle, philosopher David Z Albert argues that the distinctively strange features of quantum mechanics begin to make sense once we conceive of the wave function, vibrating and evolving in high-dimensional space, as the concrete, fundamental physical “stuff” of the universe. Starting with simple mechanical models, Albert methodically constructs the defining features of quantum mechanics from scratch. He shows how the entire history of our familiar, three-dimensional universe can be discerned in the wave function’s intricate pattern of ripples and whorls. A major new work in the foundations of physics, A Guess at the Riddle is poised to transform our understanding of the basic architecture of the universe.
By Shing-Tung Yau, Steve Nadis. 2019
A Fields medalist recounts his lifelong effort to uncover the geometric shape—the Calabi-Yau manifold—that may store the hidden dimensions of…our universe.Harvard geometer Shing-Tung Yau has provided a mathematical foundation for string theory, offered new insights into black holes, and mathematically demonstrated the stability of our universe. In this autobiography, Yau reflects on his improbable journey to becoming one of the world’s most distinguished mathematicians. Beginning with an impoverished childhood in China and Hong Kong, Yau takes readers through his doctoral studies at Berkeley during the height of the Vietnam War protests, his Fields Medal–winning proof of the Calabi conjecture, his return to China, and his pioneering work in geometric analysis. This new branch of geometry, which Yau built up with his friends and colleagues, has paved the way for solutions to several important and previously intransigent problems.With complicated ideas explained for a broad audience, this book offers not only insights into the life of an eminent mathematician, but also an accessible way to understand advanced and highly abstract concepts in mathematics and theoretical physics.“The remarkable story of one of the world’s most accomplished mathematicians . . . Yau’s personal journey—from escaping China as a youngster, leading a gang outside Hong Kong, becoming captivated by mathematics, to making breakthroughs that thrust him on the world stage—inspires us all with humankind’s irrepressible spirit of discovery.” —Brian Greene, New York Times–bestselling author of The Elegant Universe“An unexpectedly intimate look into a highly accomplished man, his colleagues and friends, the development of a new field of geometric analysis, and a glimpse into a truly uncommon mind.” —The Boston Globe“Engaging, eminently readable. . . . For those with a taste for elegant and largely jargon-free explanations of mathematics, The Shape of a Life promises hours of rewarding reading.” —American Scientist
By Simon Garfield. 2016
By the bestselling author of Just My Type: a &“thoroughly enjoyable and illuminating&” journey into the concept of time &“stuffed with…fascinating material&” (Observer, UK).Timekeepers is a book about our obsession with time and our desire to measure it, control it, sell it, film it, perform it, immortalize it and make it meaningful. In this fascinating, anecdotal exploration, award-winning author Simon Garfield has two simple intentions: to tell some illuminating stories, and to ask whether we have all gone completely nuts. Here, Garfield explores the nature of time through stories such as: the Beatles learning to be brilliant in an hour and a half; an Englishman arriving back from Calcutta, refusing to adjust his watch; Beethoven&’s symphonic wishes being ignored; a US Senator&’s speech that goes for 25 hours; the horrors of war frozen at the click of a camera; a woman who designs a ten-hour clock and reinvents the calendar; Roger Bannister living out the same four minutes over a lifetime; and a who prince attempts to stop time in its tracks.&“Digressive, gossipy, thoughtful and thoroughly entertaining.&”—The Sunday Times, UK
By Marcus Chown. 2019
A mind-bending journey through some of the most weird and wonderful facts about our universe, vividly illuminating the hidden truths…that govern our everyday lives. Fact: You could fit the whole human race in the volume of a sugar cube. Fact: The electrical energy in a single mosquito is enough to cause a global mass extinction. Fact: You age more quickly on the top floor than on the ground floor. So much of our world seems to make perfect sense, and scientific breakthroughs have helped us understand ourselves, our planet, and our place in the universe in fascinating detail. But our adventures in space, our deepening understanding of the quantum world, and our leaps in technology have also revealed a universe far stranger than we ever imagined. With brilliant clarity and wit, bestselling author Marcus Chown examines the profound science behind fifty remarkable scientific facts that help explain the vast complexities of our existence.&“The tone is consistently light and breezy...An addictive, intriguing, and entertaining read...A handy guide for anyone yearning to spice up their conversational skills.&”—Booklist&“Heavy stuff lightly spun―just the thing for the science buff in the house.&”―Kirkus Review
Joe Pawsey and the Founding of Australian Radio Astronomy: Early Discoveries, from the Sun to the Cosmos (Historical & Cultural Astronomy)
By Claire Hooker, W. M. Goss, Ronald D. Ekers. 2023
This open access book is a biography of Joseph L. Pawsey. It examines not only his life but the birth…and growth of the field of radio astronomy and the state of science itself in twentieth century Australia. The book explains how an isolated continent with limited resources grew to be one of the leaders in the study of radio astronomy and the design of instruments to do so. Pawsey made a name for himself in the international astronomy community within a decade after WWII and coined the term radio astronomy. His most valuable talent was his ability to recruit and support bright young scientists who became the technical and methodological innovators of the era, building new telescopes from the Mills Cross and Chris (Christiansen) Cross to the Parkes radio telescope. The development of aperture synthesis and the controversy surrounding the cosmological interpretation of the first major survey which resulted in the Sydney research group's disagreements with Nobel laureate Martin Ryle play major roles in this story. This book also shows the connections among prominent astronomers like Oort, Minkowski, Baade, Struve, famous scientists in the UK such as J.A. Ratcliffe, Edward Appleton and Henry Tizard, and the engineers and physicists in Australia who helped develop the field of radio astronomy. Pawsey was appointed the second Director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (Green Bank, West Virginia) in October 1961; he died in Sydney at the age of 54 in late November 1962. Upper level students, scientists and historians will find the information, much of it from primary sources, relevant to any study of Joseph L. Pawsey or radio astronomy.This is an open access book.
By Charles Liu. 2021
Fuel curiosity and early learning with a fun physics book for ages 0 to 3 Set your little physicist up…for S.T.E.A.M. success with Intro to Physics for Babies, a colorful and adorable storybook that explores the fundamentals of physics in a way that even babies can understand. Follow along with Isaac the puppy, Erwin the kitty, and Emmy the mouse as they spend a day of adventurous play, illustrating the three laws of motion that form the basis of today's physics. Intro to Physics for Babies features: Science made simple—Discover simple explanations of basic physics through a fun story that kids can relate to. Adorable illustrations—Big, vibrant images and cute animal characters make it easier to understand physics for babies, and keep kids engaged. Teaching moments—A quick science guide at the back helps adults stay up to speed and even answer questions from extra curious kids. Help little ones start exploring science with Intro to Physics for Babies.
By Anatoly E. Nesterov, Yuri S. Lipatov. 1998
Thermodynamics is an indispensable tool for developing a large and growing fraction of new polymers and polymer blends. These two…volumes show the researcher how thermodynamics can be used to rank polymer pairs in order of immiscibility, including the search for suitable chemical structure of compatibilizers. Because of the great current commercial interest in this most dynamic sector of the polymer industry, there is high interest in studying their physical and mechanical properties, their structures, and the processes of their formation and manufacture. These Books are dedicated to Analysis of the Thermodynamics of Polymer Blends. Thermodynamic behavior of blends determines the compatibility of the components, their morphological features, rheological behavior, and microphase structures. As a result, the most important physical and mechanical characteristics of blends can be identified. The information in these two volumes will be useful to all those involved in polymer research, development, analysis and advanced process engineering.
By Mesfin A. Kebede, Fabian I. Ezema. 2020
This book explores a wide range of energy storage devices, such as a lithium ion battery, sodium ion battery, magnesium…ion battery and supercapacitors. Providing a comprehensive review of the current field, it also discusses the history of these technologies and introduces next-generation rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors. This book will serve as a valuable reference for researchers working with energy storage technologies across the fields of physics, chemistry, and engineering. Features:• Edited by established authorities in the field, with chapter contributions from subject area specialists • Provides a comprehensive review of field • Up to date with the latest developments and research