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The book aims to the description of recent progress in studies of light absorption and scattering in turbid media. In…particular, light scattering/oceanic optics/snow optics research community will greatly benefit from the publication of this book.
By Alexander Kokhanovsky. 2021
This book is the first book of its kind, focusing exclusively on the optical properties of snow. As a complex…and turbid medium, snow is approached as a strongly light-scattering (in the visible spectrum) medium with large, nonspherical ice grains. The book discusses both experimental and theoretical results, as well as the remote sensing of snow using ground-based, airborne and satellite optical instrumentation. The book will be of particular importance for researchers studying snow characteristics (the size of grains, snow pollution and albedo) using various remote-sensing techniques.
By Giovanni Leone. 2021
This book is a comprehensive advancement about the understanding of the volcanology of Mars in all its aspects, from its…primary formation to its evolution in time, from the smaller structures to the bigger structures. It discusses the implications of volcanism in the general environmental and geological context of Mars. The book is validating the Southern Giant Impact Hypothesis explaining the formation of Mars in an interdisciplinary approach, including mineralogical, geochemical, volcanological as well as geomorphological information. Implications for future explorations in terms of resources are provided. This book serves as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate level to foster new basic research in the field of planetary volcanology and is a new guide for future missions toward a volcanic world, including new detailed information for the general audience who is always keen to know more about the history of Mars and its large volcanoes. The book also presents an updated situation about the water resources of the planet.
By Kazuo Nishimura, Masatoshi Murase, Kazuyoshi Yoshimura. 2021
In recent years, problems such as environmental and economic crises and pandemics caused by new viruses have been occurring on…a global scale. Globalization brings about benefits, but it can increase the potential risks of “systemic problems”, leading to system-wide disruptions. The coronavirus pandemic, declared on March 11, 2020, by the World Health Organization, has revealed social disparities in the form of a higher risk of death for people of low-socioeconomic status and has caused massive destruction of the economy and of globalization itself. Extensive efforts to cope with these challenges have often led to the emergence of additional problems due to the chain of hidden causation. What can be done to protect against such emerging challenges? Despite the resulting complexity, once these individual problems are considered as different aspects of a single whole, seemingly contradictory issues can become totally understandable, as they can be integrated into a single coherent framework. This is the integrationist approach in contrast to the reductionist approach. Situations of this kind are truly relevant to understanding the question, “What are creative complex systems?” This book features contributions by members and colleagues of the Kyoto University International Research Unit of Integrated Complex System Science. It broadens our outlook from the traditional view of stability, in which global situations are eventually stabilized after the impact of destruction, to “creative” complex systems.
By Servet Ozdemir. 2021
This thesis presents the first systematic electron transport investigation of rhombohedral graphite (RG) films and thus lies at the interface…of graphene physics, vdW heterostructure devices and topological matter. Electron transport investigation into the rhombohedral phase of graphite was limited to a few layers of graphene due to the competing hexagonal phase being more abundant. This work reports that in exfoliated natural graphite films, rhombohedral domains of up to 50 layers can be found. In the low energy limit, these domains behave as an N-layer generalisation of graphene. Moreover, being a potential alternative to twisted bilayer graphene systems, RG films show a spontaneous metal-insulator transition, with characteristic symmetry properties that could be described by mean-field theory where superconductivity is also predicted in these low energy bands. A nodal-line semimetal in the bulk limit, RG thin films are a 3D generalisation of the simplest topological insulator model: the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger chain. Similar to the more usual topological insulators, RG films exhibit parallel conduction of bulk states, which undergo three-dimensional quantum transport that reflects bulk topology.
By Antonios M. Alvertis. 2021
What are the physical mechanisms that underlie the efficient generation and transfer of energy at the nanoscale? Nature seems to…know the answer to this question, having optimised the process of photosynthesis in plants over millions of years of evolution. It is conceivable that humans could mimic this process using synthetic materials, and organic semiconductors have attracted a lot of attention in this respect. Once an organic semiconductor absorbs light, bound pairs of electrons with positively charged holes, termed `excitons’, are formed. Excitons behave as fundamental energy carriers, hence understanding the physics behind their efficient generation and transfer is critical to realising the potential of organic semiconductors for light-harvesting and other applications, such as LEDs and transistors. However, this problem is extremely challenging since excitons can interact very strongly with photons. Moreover, simultaneously with the exciton motion, organic molecules can vibrate in hundreds of possible ways, having a very strong effect on energy transfer. The description of these complex phenomena is often beyond the reach of standard quantum mechanical methods which rely on the assumption of weak interactions between excitons, photons and vibrations. In this thesis, Antonios Alvertis addresses this problem through the development and application of a variety of different theoretical methods to the description of these strong interactions, providing pedagogical explanations of the underlying physics. A comprehensive introduction to organic semiconductors is followed by a review of the background theory that is employed to approach the relevant research questions, and the theoretical results are presented in close connection with experiment, yielding valuable insights for experimentalists and theoreticians alike.
By Masayoshi Nakasako. 2021
This book describes hydration structures of proteins by combining experimental results with theoretical considerations. It is designed to introduce graduate…students and researchers to microscopic views of the interactions between water and biological macromolecules and to provide them with an overview of the field. Topics on protein hydration from the past 25 years are examined, most of which involve crystallography, fluorescence measurements, and molecular dynamics simulations. In X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations, recent advances have accelerated the study of hydration structures over the entire surface of proteins. Experimentally, crystal structure analysis at cryogenic temperatures is advantageous in terms of visualizing the positions of hydration water molecules on the surfaces of proteins in their frozen-hydrated crystals. A set of massive data regarding hydration sites on protein surfaces provides an appropriate basis, enabling us to identify statistically significant trends in geometrical characteristics. Trajectories obtained from molecular dynamics simulations illustrate the motion of water molecules in the vicinity of protein surfaces at sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution to study the influences of hydration on protein motion. Together with the results and implications of these studies, the physical principles of the measurement and simulation of protein hydration are briefly summarized at an undergraduate level. Further, the author presents recent results from statistical approaches to characterizing hydrogen-bond geometry in local hydration structures of proteins. The book equips readers to better understand the structures and modes of interaction at the interface between water and proteins. Referred to as “hydration structures”, they are the subject of much discussion, as they may help to answer the question of why water is indispensable for life at the molecular and atomic level.
This new expanded second edition has been totally revised and corrected. The reader finds two complete new chapters. One covers the…exact solution of the finite temperature Schwinger model with periodic boundary conditions. This simple model supports instanton solutions – similarly as QCD – and allows for a detailed discussion of topological sectors in gauge theories, the anomaly-induced breaking of chiral symmetry and the intriguing role of fermionic zero modes. The other new chapter is devoted to interacting fermions at finite fermion density and finite temperature. Such low-dimensional models are used to describe long-energy properties of Dirac-type materials in condensed matter physics. The large-N solutions of the Gross-Neveu, Nambu-Jona-Lasinio and Thirring models are presented in great detail, where N denotes the number of fermion flavors. Towards the end of the book corrections to the large-N solution and simulation results of a finite number of fermion flavors are presented. Further problems are added at the end of each chapter in order to guide the reader to a deeper understanding of the presented topics. This book is meant for advanced students and young researchers who want to acquire the necessary tools and experience to produce research results in the statistical approach to Quantum Field Theory.
This book presents a unified view of the response of materials as a result of femtosecond laser excitation, introducing a…general theory that captures both ultrashort-time non-thermal and long-time thermal phenomena. It includes a novel method for performing ultra-large-scale molecular dynamics simulations extending into experimental and technological spatial dimensions with ab-initio precision. For this, it introduces a new class of interatomic potentials, constructed from ab-initio data with the help of a self-learning algorithm, and verified by direct comparison with experiments in two different materials — the semiconductor silicon and the semimetal antimony.In addition to a detailed description of the new concepts introduced, as well as giving a timely review of ultrafast phenomena, the book provides a rigorous introduction to the field of laser–matter interaction and ab-initio description of solids, delivering a complete and self-contained examination of the topic from the very first principles. It explains, step by step from the basic physical principles, the underlying concepts in quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and electrodynamics, introducing all necessary mathematical theorems as well as their proofs. A collection of appendices provide the reader with an appropriate review of many fundamental mathematical concepts, as well as important analytical and numerical parameters used in the simulations.
Optical and Wireless Technologies: Proceedings of OWT 2020 (Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering #771)
By Ashok Kumar, Manish Tiwari, Preecha Yupapin, Ravi Kumar Maddila, Amit Kumar Garg. 2022
This book comprises select proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Optical and Wireless Technologies (OWT 2020). The contents of…this volume focus on research carried out in the areas of Optical Communication, Optoelectronics, Optics, Wireless Communication, Wireless Networks, Sensors, Mobile Communications and Antenna and Wave Propagation. The volume also explores the combined use of various optical and wireless technologies in next generation applications, and their latest developments in applications like photonics, high speed communication systems and networks, visible light communication, nanophotonics, wireless and MIMO systems. This book will serve as a useful reference to scientists, academicians, engineers and policy-makers interested in the field of optical and wireless technologies.
By David Landau, Kurt Binder. 2021
Dealing with all aspects of Monte Carlo simulation of complex physical systems encountered in condensed matter physics and statistical mechanics,…this book provides an introduction to computer simulations in physics. The 5th edition contains extensive new material describing numerous powerful algorithms and methods that represent recent developments in the field. New topics such as active matter and machine learning are also introduced. Throughout, there are many applications, examples, recipes, case studies, and exercises to help the reader fully comprehend the material. This book is ideal for graduate students and researchers, both in academia and industry, who want to learn techniques that have become a third tool of physical science, complementing experiment and analytical theory.
Owing to the increased accuracy requirements in fields such as astrometry and geodesy the general theory of relativity must be…taken into account for any mission requiring highly accurate orbit information and for practically all observation and measurement techniques. This book highlights the confluence of Applied Mathematics, Physics and Space Science as seen from Einstein's general theory of relativity and aims to bridge the gap between theoretical and applied domains. The book investigates three distinct areas of general relativity: Exact solutions of the Einstein field equations of gravitation. Dynamics of near-Earth objects and solar system bodies. Relativistic orbitography. This book is an updated and expanded version of the author’s PhD thesis which was awarded the International Astronomical Union PhD prize in Division A: Fundamental Astronomy. Included is a new introduction aimed at graduate students of General Relativity and extended discussions and results on topics in post-Newtonian dynamics and general relativistic spacecraft propagation.
By Steven J. Large. 2021
This thesis establishes a multifaceted extension of the deterministic control framework that has been a workhorse of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics,…to stochastic, discrete, and autonomous control mechanisms. This facilitates the application of ideas from stochastic thermodynamics to the understanding of molecular machines in nanotechnology and in living things. It also gives a scale on which to evaluate the nonequilibrium energetic efficiency of molecular machines, guidelines for designing effective synthetic machines, and a perspective on the engineering principles that govern efficient microscopic energy transduction far from equilibrium. The thesis also documents the author’s design, analysis, and interpretation of the first experimental demonstration of the utility of this generally applicable method for designing energetically-efficient control in biomolecules. Protocols designed using this framework systematically reduced dissipation, when compared to naive protocols, in DNA hairpins across a wide range of experimental unfolding speeds and between sequences with wildly different physical characteristics.
By Hakeem Oluseyi. 2021
In this inspiring coming-of-age memoir, a world-renowned astrophysicist emerges from an impoverished childhood and crime-filled adolescence to ascend through the…top ranks of research physics. &“You&’ll encounter one extraordinary turn of events after another, as the extraordinary chess player, puzzle solver, and occasional grifter works his way from grinding poverty and deep despair to worldwide acclaim as a physicist.&”—Bill Nye, CEO of The Planetary Society Navigating poverty, violence, and instability, a young James Plummer had two guiding stars—a genius IQ and a love of science. But a bookish nerd is a soft target, and James faced years of bullying and abuse. As he struggled to survive his childhood in some of the country&’s toughest urban neighborhoods in New Orleans, Houston, and LA, and later in the equally poor backwoods of Mississippi, he adopted the persona of &“gangsta nerd&”—dealing weed in juke joints while winning state science fairs with computer programs that model Einstein&’s theory of relativity. Once admitted to the elite physics PhD program at Stanford University, James found himself pulled between the promise of a bright future and a dangerous crack cocaine habit he developed in college. With the encouragement of his mentor and the sole Black professor in the physics department, James confronted his personal demons as well as the entrenched racism and classism of the scientific establishment. When he finally seized his dream of a life in astrophysics, he adopted a new name, Hakeem Muata Oluseyi, to honor his African ancestors. Alternately heartbreaking and hopeful , A Quantum Life narrates one man&’s remarkable quest across an ever-expanding universe filled with entanglement and choice
By R. N. Keshavamurty. 2022
The book discusses the basic of atmospheric dynamics where the curved surface of the earth and its rotation around its…own axis plays very important roles. The emphasis is on basic physical concepts and the interpretation of equations and the different terms therein. Note: T&F does not sell or distribute the hardback in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
By Timothy J. Jorgensen. 2021
A fresh look at electricity and its powerful role in life on EarthWhen we think of electricity, we likely imagine…the energy humming inside our home appliances or lighting up our electronic devices—or perhaps we envision the lightning-streaked clouds of a stormy sky. But electricity is more than an external source of power, heat, or illumination. Life at its essence is nothing if not electrical.The story of how we came to understand electricity’s essential role in all life is rooted in our observations of its influences on the body—influences governed by the body’s central nervous system. Spark explains the science of electricity from this fresh, biological perspective. Through vivid tales of scientists and individuals—from Benjamin Franklin to Elon Musk—Timothy Jorgensen shows how our views of electricity and the nervous system evolved in tandem, and how progress in one area enabled advancements in the other. He explains how these developments have allowed us to understand—and replicate—the ways electricity enables the body’s essential functions of sight, hearing, touch, and movement itself.Throughout, Jorgensen examines our fascination with electricity and how it can help or harm us. He explores a broad range of topics and events, including the Nobel Prize–winning discoveries of the electron and neuron, the history of experimentation involving electricity’s effects on the body, and recent breakthroughs in the use of electricity to treat disease.Filled with gripping adventures in scientific exploration, Spark offers an indispensable look at electricity, how it works, and how it animates our lives from within and without.
The energy momentum tensor (EMT) is one of the most fundamental observables in physics. Recently, a novel method to define…EMT on the basis of the gradient-flow formalism has been proposed. It turned out that the EMT operator can be constructed even on the lattice with the method, which enables non-perturbative computations. This approach has been successfully applied to the analyses on thermodynamic quantities.This book presents the study on spatial EMT distributions around static charges via the gradient flow in lattice simulations based on SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. Static charges are employed as probes to explore complex quantum systems, and EMT then characterizes the response of vacuum as well as hot medium under the existence of the charges, which significantly provides profound and novel insights into the non-perturbative phenomena, such as the confinement of quarks. In addition, the book treats the study on the EMT distribution around a magnetic vortex in the Abelian-Higgs model, which is compared with the lattice result. These achievements open up various future studies for revealing non-trivial aspects of the strong interaction.The book also includes well-organized reviews on general properties of EMT, lattice gauge theory and the gradient-flow formalism with its application to the definition of EMT. They are useful for students and young researchers as a brief introduction to this field.
Ceramics, Glass and Glass-Ceramics: From Early Manufacturing Steps Towards Modern Frontiers (PoliTO Springer Series)
By Francesco Baino, Massimo Tomalino, Dilshat Tulyaganov. 2021
This book presents a state-of-the-art overview of the major aspects involved in the science, technology and applications of ceramics, glasses…and glass-ceramics. After providing an historical perspective of the development and use of ceramics and glasses along the Silk Road, the theoretical background and fabrication techniques of such materials are described and discussed. A special focus is dedicated to emerging high-tech applications in various fields, including medicine, energy, optics and photonics, sensors, sustainability and circular economy. The chapters are written by leading experts in their respective fields and highlight the contemporary challenges associated to each topic. This book will serve as a valuable reference for both early-stage and skilled researchers as well as industry professionals interested in the broad field of glasses and ceramics.
By Vitalii K Dugaev, Vladimir I Litvinov. 2022
This textbook provides a theoretical background for contemporary trends in solid-state theory and semiconductor device physics. It discusses advanced methods…of quantum mechanics and field theory and is therefore primarily intended for graduate students in theoretical and experimental physics who have already studied electrodynamics, statistical physics, and quantum mechanics. It also relates solid-state physics fundamentals to semiconductor device applications and includes auxiliary results from mathematics and quantum mechanics, making the book useful also for graduate students in electrical engineering and material science. Key Features: Explores concepts common in textbooks on semiconductors, in addition to topics not included in similar books currently available on the market, such as the topology of Hilbert space in crystals Contains the latest research and developments in the field Written in an accessible yet rigorous manner
By Stephen R. Taylor. 2022
Nanohertz Gravitational Wave Astronomy explores the exciting hunt for low frequency gravitational waves by using the extraordinary timing precision of…pulsars. The book takes the reader on a tour across the expansive gravitational-wave landscape, from LIGO detections to the search for polarization patterns in the Cosmic Microwave Background, then hones in on the band of nanohertz frequencies that Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs) are sensitive to. Within this band may lie many pairs of the most massive black holes in the entire Universe, all radiating in chorus to produce a background of gravitational waves. The book shows how such extra-Galactic gravitational waves can alter the arrival times of radio pulses emanating from monitored Galactic pulsars, and how we can use the pattern of correlated timing deviations from many pulsars to tease out the elusive signal. The book takes a pragmatic approach to data analysis, explaining how it is performed in practice within classical and Bayesian statistics, as well as the numerous strategies one can use to optimize numerical Bayesian searches in PTA analyses. It closes with a complete discussion of the data model for nanohertz gravitational wave searches, and an overview of the past achievements, present efforts, and future prospects for PTAs. The book is accessible to upper division undergraduate students and graduate students of astronomy, and also serves as a useful desk reference for experts in the field. Key features: Contains a complete derivation of the pulsar timing response to gravitational waves, and the overlap reduction function for PTAs. Presents a comprehensive overview of source astrophysics, and the dynamical influences that shape the gravitational wave signals that PTAs are sensitive to. Serves as a detailed primer on gravitational-wave data analysis and numerical Bayesian techniques for PTAs.