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X-Planes from the X-1 to the X-60: An Illustrated History (Springer Praxis Books)
By Michael H. Gorn, Giuseppe De Chiara. 2021
Foreword by Dr. Roger D. Launius, Former NASA Chief Historian For the past 75 years, the U.S. government has invested significant…time and money into advanced aerospace research, as evidenced by its many experimental X-plane aircraft and rockets. NASA's X-Planes asks a simple question: What have we gained from it all? To answer this question, the authors provide a comprehensive overview of the X-plane’s long history, from the 1946 X-1 to the modern X-60. The chapters describe not just the technological evolution of these models, but also the wider story of politics, federal budgets, and inter-agency rivalries surrounding them. The book is organized into two sections, with the first covering the operational X-planes that symbolized the Cold War struggle between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R, and the second section surveying post-Cold War aircraft and spacecraft. Featuring dozens of original illustrations of X-plane cross-sections, in-flight profiles, close-ups, and more, this book will educate general readers and specialists alike.
This book focuses on continuing the long-standing productive dialogue between physical science and the philosophy of science. Researchers and readers…who want to keep up to date on front-line scientific research in fluid mechanics and gravitational wave astrophysics will find timely and well-informed analyses of this scientific research and its philosophical significance. These exciting frontiers of research pose deep scientific problems, and raise key questions in the philosophy of science related to scientific explanation and understanding, theory change and assessment, measurement, interpretation, realism, and modeling. The audience of the book includes philosophers of science, philosophers of mathematics, scientists with philosophical interests, and students in philosophy, history, mathematics, and science. Anyone who is interested in the methods and philosophical questions behind the recent exciting work in physics discussed here will profit from reading this book.
Black Holes: The Key to Understanding the Universe
By Brian Cox, Jeff Forshaw. 2022
By the star physicist and author of multiple #1 Sunday Times bestsellers, a major and definitive narrative work on black…holes and how they can help us understand the universe. At the heart of our galaxy lies a monster so deadly it can bend space, throwing vast jets of radiation millions of light years out into the cosmos. Its kind were the very first inhabitants of the universe, the black holes.Today, across the universe, at the heart of every galaxy, and dotted throughout, mature black holes are creating chaos. And in a quiet part of the universe, the Swift satellite has picked up evidence of a gruesome death caused by one of these dark powers. High energy X-ray flares shooting out from deep within the Draco constellation are thought to be the dying cries of a white dwarf star being ripped apart by the intense tides of a supermassive black hole – heating it to millions of degrees as it is shredded at the event horizon.They have the power to wipe out any of the universe’s other inhabitants, but no one has ever seen a black hole itself die. But 1.8 billion light years away, the LIGO instruments have recently detected something that could be the closest a black hole gets to death. Gravitational waves given off as two enormous black holes merge together. And now scientists think that these gravitational waves could be evidence of two black holes connecting to form a wormhole – a link through space and time. It seems outlandish, but today’s physicists are daring to think the unthinkable – that black holes could connect us to another universe.At their very heart, black holes are also where Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity is stretched in almost unimaginable ways, revealing black holes as the key to our understanding of the fundamentals of our universe and perhaps all other universes.Join Professors Brian Cox and Jeff Forshaw in exploring our universe’s most mysterious inhabitants, how they are formed, why they are essential components of every galaxy, including our own, and what secrets they still hold, waiting to be discovered.
Virtual You: How Building Your Digital Twin Will Revolutionize Medicine and Change Your Life
By Roger Highfield, Peter Coveney. 2023
The visionary science behind the digital human twins that will enhance our health and our futureVirtual You is a panoramic…account of efforts by scientists around the world to build digital twins of human beings, from cells and tissues to organs and whole bodies. These virtual copies will usher in a new era of personalized medicine, one in which your digital twin can help predict your risk of disease, participate in virtual drug trials, shed light on the diet and lifestyle changes that are best for you, and help identify therapies to enhance your well-being and extend your lifespan—but thorny challenges remain.In this deeply illuminating book, Peter Coveney and Roger Highfield reveal what it will take to build a virtual, functional copy of a person in five steps. Along the way, they take you on a fantastic voyage through the complexity of the human body, describing the latest scientific and technological advances—from multiscale modeling to extraordinary new forms of computing—that will make “virtual you” a reality, while also considering the ethical questions inherent to realizing truly predictive medicine.With an incisive foreword by Nobel Prize–winning biologist Venki Ramakrishnan, Virtual You is science at its most astounding, showing how our virtual twins and even whole populations of virtual humans promise to transform our health and our lives in the coming decades.
Soft Crystals: Flexible Response Systems with High Structural Order (The Materials Research Society Series)
By Masako Kato, Kazuyuki Ishii. 2023
This open access book introduces the science of the new materials, soft crystals, by showing various interesting examples. Different from…conventional hard and stable crystals, the soft crystals respond to gentle stimuli such as vapor exposure and rubbing but maintain their structural order. In this book, their exhibition of remarkable visual changes in their shape, color, and luminescence is described. Through the chapters, historical background, recent remarkable developments, and future prospects are described concisely. This book helps readers to understand a new concept of materials that have the characteristics of stimulus-sensitive soft matter and finely controlled crystals and to design novel materials with the characteristics. The English translation of this book from its Japanese language original manuscript was done with the help of artificial intelligence (machine translation by the service DeepL.com). The text has subsequently been revised further by a professional copy editor in order to refine the work stylistically.
Although several excellent works exist that describe the effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere—its theory, significance and relevance to…Earth sciences in general—none cover the details of the methods for its estimation. This book brings together the disparate knowledge required to estimate Te in one handy volume: signal processing, harmonic analysis, civil engineering, and foundational mathematics and physics, in addition to the relevant geophysics and, to a lesser extent, geology. Its two principal focus areas are spectral estimation, covering various approaches to estimating the admittance and coherence between gravity and topography using Slepian multitapers and fan wavelets; and algebraic and finite difference solutions of the plate bending partial differential equation in a variety of geological settings. This book would be suitable for postgraduate students beginning their research, up to faculty professors interested in diversifying their skills.
Proceedings of the International Conference on Cybersecurity, Situational Awareness and Social Media: Cyber Science 2022; 20–21 June; Wales (Springer Proceedings in Complexity)
By Pierangelo Rosati, Martin Gilje Jaatun, Cyril Onwubiko, Aunshul Rege, Arnau Erola, Xavier Bellekens, Hanan Hindy. 2023
This book highlights advances in Cyber Security, Cyber Situational Awareness (CyberSA), Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Social Media. It brings together…original discussions, ideas, concepts and outcomes from research and innovation from multidisciplinary experts. It offers topical, timely and emerging original innovations and research results in cyber situational awareness, security analytics, cyber physical systems, blockchain technologies, machine learning, social media and wearables, protection of online digital service, cyber incident response, containment, control, and countermeasures (CIRC3). The theme of Cyber Science 2022 is Ethical and Responsible use of AI. Includes original contributions advancing research in Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Blockchain, Cyber Security, Social Media, Cyber Incident Response & Cyber Insurance.Chapters “Municipal Cybersecurity—A Neglected Research Area? A Survey of Current Research", "The Transnational Dimension of Cybersecurity: The NIS Directive and its Jurisdictional Challenges" and "Refining the Mandatory Cybersecurity Incident Reporting under the NIS Directive 2.0: Event Types and Reporting Processes” are available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.
Fundamentals: Ten Keys to Reality
By Frank Wilczek. 2021
One of our great contemporary scientists reveals the ten profound insights that illuminate what everyone should know about the physical…worldIn Fundamentals, Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek offers the reader a simple yet profound exploration of reality based on the deep revelations of modern science. With clarity and an infectious sense of joy, he guides us through the essential concepts that form our understanding of what the world is and how it works. Through these pages, we come to see our reality in a new way--bigger, fuller, and stranger than it looked before.Synthesizing basic questions, facts, and dazzling speculations, Wilczek investigates the ideas that form our understanding of the universe: time, space, matter, energy, complexity, and complementarity. He excavates the history of fundamental science, exploring what we know and how we know it, while journeying to the horizons of the scientific world to give us a glimpse of what we may soon discover. Brilliant, lucid, and accessible, this celebration of human ingenuity and imagination will expand your world and your mind.
Cosmic Ray Physics: An Introduction to The Cosmic Laboratory
By Martin Pohl, Veronica Bindi, Mercedes Paniccia. 2023
This book introduces you to the physics of cosmic rays, charged particles which reach us from known – and maybe…unknown – sources in the cosmos. Starting from a brief history of this fascinating field, it reviews what we know about the creation of elements in the Big Bang and inside stars. It explains cosmic accelerators reaching fabulous energies. It follows the life cycle of cosmic rays all the way from their sources to detection near, on or below Earth. The central three chapters cover what we know about them at the level of the solar system, the Milky Way and the Universe at large. Up-to-date experimental results are presented in detail, showing how they are obtained and interpreted. The book provides an accessible overview of this lively and diversified research field. It will be of interest to undergraduate physics students beginning their studies on astronomy, cosmology, and particle physics. It is also accessible to the general public by concentrating mathematical and technical detail into Focus Boxes. Key features: Complete introductory overview of cosmic ray physics Covers the origins, acceleration, transport mechanisms and detection of these particles Mathematical and technical detail is kept separate from the main text
Nonlinear Waves: From Dissipative Solitons to Magnetic Solitons
By Emmanuel Kengne, WuMing Liu. 2022
This book highlights the methods to engineer dissipative and magnetic nonlinear waves propagating in nonlinear systems. In the first part…of the book, the authors present methodologically mathematical models of nonlinear waves propagating in one- and two-dimensional nonlinear transmission networks without/with dissipative elements. Based on these models, the authors investigate the generation and the transmission of nonlinear modulated waves, in general, and solitary waves, in particular, in networks under consideration. In the second part of the book, the authors develop basic theoretical results for the dynamics matter-wave and magnetic-wave solitons of nonlinear systems and of Bose–Einstein condensates trapped in external potentials, combined with the time-modulated nonlinearity. The models treated here are based on one-, two-, and three-component non-autonomous Gross–Pitaevskii equations. Based on the Heisenberg model of spin–spin interactions, the authors also investigate the dynamics of magnetization in ferromagnet with or without spin-transfer torque. This research book is suitable for physicists, mathematicians, engineers, and graduate students in physics, mathematics, and network and information engineering.
This book presents solutions to problems that are total and based on thinking about how and why humans have organized…themselves. It discusses how to avoid the now well-documented Holocene Extinction, propelled by climate change, wars, resource depletion, desertification, degrading knowledge quality, famine, and deterioration of societies overall. It explains why we cannot respond effectively with hedonistic, incompetent, corrupt, and anarchistic "liberal democracy" and why neither personality cult regimes can suffice. The book offers a model of an organic social structure embodying a collective consciousness of communitarianism and Platonic-style ethos. Putting an emphasis on the re-establishment of Classical Greek virtue, it offers solutions to resolve identity politics, alienation, and meritocracy. While doing so, the author opposes the "everyone is equal" ideology to govern the section of policymakers, instead circumscribing "rights" in terms of responsibilities, prioritizing education and training to carry forth the ethos of valuing truth above materialism, and developing Durkheim's social brain via a new discipline, "sociointelligence". The book goes on to explain how underpinning these elements is a comprehensive elucidation of often misunderstood words like "liberty", "freedom", "authoritarianism", and "democracy". All of these areas are arranged and combined in uniquely describing the organic society the author deems necessary to avoid human extinction. As a result, the book presents a “new organicity”, where the emerging transhumanism seeks to transcend hydrocarbon-based life with humanly-constructed life.This book will appeal to students, researchers, and scholars of political science, philosophy, and the social sciences interested in a better understanding of complexity, democratic theory, Holocene Extinction, organic thinking, and meritocratic societies.
This book provides a deep insight into recent achievements in synthesis, investigation, and applications of the low-dimensional chalcohalide nanomaterials. The…large number of interesting phenomena occur in these compounds, including ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electrocaloric, Seebeck, photovoltaic, and ferroelectric-photovoltaic effects. Furthermore, the outstanding photoelectrochemical, photocatalytic, and piezocatalytic properties of the chalcohalide nanomaterials have been revealed. Since many chalcohalide semiconductors possess both photoactive and ferroelectric properties, they are recognized as photoferroelectrics. It presents an overview of fabrication of chalcohalide nanomaterials using different methods: mechanical milling of bulk crystals, liquid-phase exfoliation, vapor phase growth, hydro/solvothermal methods, synthesis under ultrasonic irradiation, microwave synthesis, laser/heat-induced crystallization, electrospinning, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction. The strategies of the chalcohalide nanomaterials processing for construction of functional devices are presented.The book describes solution processing for thin films preparation, spin-coating deposition of polymer composites, solution casting, films deposition via drop-casting, high pressure compression of nanowires into the bulk samples, pressure assisted sintering, and electric field assisted alignment of nanowires. The applications of the chalcohalide nanomaterials for mechanical/thermal energy harvesting and energy storage are presented. Major challenges and emerging trends in fabrication, characterization, and future applications of low-dimensional chalcohalide nanomaterials are discussed. A wealth of information for scholars, graduate students, and engineers involved in research of nanomaterials.
Outer Space and Popular Culture: Influences and Interrelations, Part 3 (Southern Space Studies)
By Annette Froehlich. 2023
This book provides detailed insights into how space and popular culture intersect across a broad spectrum of examples, including cinema,…music, art, arcade games, cartoons, comics, and advertisements. This is a pertinent topic since the use of space themes differs in different cultural contexts, and these themes can be used to explore various aspects of the human condition and provide a context for social commentary on politically sensitive issues. With the use of space imagery evolving over the past sixty years of the space age, this is a topic ripe for in-depth exploration. The book also discusses the contrasting visions of space from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the reality of today and analyzes space vehicles and habitats in popular depictions of space from an engineering perspective, exploring how many of those ideas have actually been implemented in practice and why or why not (a case of life imitating art and vice versa). As such, it covers a wide array of relevant and timely topics examining intersections between space and popular culture and offering accounts of space and its effect on culture, language, and storytelling from the southern regions of the world.
The Poisson-Boltzmann Equation: An Introduction (SpringerBriefs in Physics)
By Ralf Blossey. 2023
This brief book introduces the Poisson-Boltzmann equation in three chapters that build upon one another, offering a systematic entry to…advanced students and researchers. Chapter one formulates the equation and develops the linearized version of Debye-Hückel theory as well as exact solutions to the nonlinear equation in simple geometries and generalizations to higher-order equations. Chapter two introduces the statistical physics approach to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It allows the treatment of fluctuation effects, treated in the loop expansion, and in a variational approach. First applications are treated in detail: the problem of the surface tension under the addition of salt, a classic problem discussed by Onsager and Samaras in the 1930s, which is developed in modern terms within the loop expansion, and the adsorption of a charged polymer on a like-charged surface within the variational approach. Chapter three finally discusses the extension of Poisson-Boltzmann theory to explicit solvent. This is done in two ways: on the phenomenological level of nonlocal electrostatics and with a statistical physics model that treats the solvent molecules as molecular dipoles. This model is then treated in the mean-field approximation and with the variational method introduced in Chapter two, rounding up the development of the mathematical approaches of Poisson-Boltzmann theory. After studying this book, a graduate student will be able to access the research literature on the Poisson-Boltzmann equation with a solid background.
Band Structure of Cubic Hydrides
By Dimitrios A. Papaconstantopoulos. 2023
This book compiles detailed results of electronic structure calculations for most possible cubic monohydrides, dihydrides and selected trihydrides related to…superconductivity, comprising elements with atomic numbers up to 103. Beginning with an introduction to the theory and details of the computational methods implemented, this handbook presents a collection of chapters containing results for different classes of cubic hydrides, featuring tables of three-centre and two-centre tight-binding parameterizations, diagrams of energy bands, and densities of states with angular momentum decomposition. Equilibrium lattice parameters and bulk moduli are also included, along with the electron-ion matrix element (Hopfield-McMillan parameter), Stoner criterion for ferromagnetism and values of Fermi velocities and plasmon energies. Each chapter features a brief text explaining the results presented with comparison to experimental values when available. A selection of the implemented computer codes is reproduced for the reader’s own use. This handbook is an ideal complement to any standard electronic structure text for students and researchers in materials science, condensed matter physics, and quantum chemistry.
A Novel Approach to Relativistic Dynamics: Integrating Gravity, Electromagnetism and Optics (Fundamental Theories of Physics #210)
By Yaakov Friedman, Tzvi Scarr. 2023
This self-contained monograph provides a mathematically simple and physically meaningful model which unifies gravity, electromagnetism, optics and even some quantum…behavior. The simplicity of the model is achieved by working in the frame of an inertial observer and by using a physically meaningful least action principle.The authors introduce an extension of the Principle of Inertia. This gives rise to a simple, physically meaningful action function. Visualizations of the geometryare obtained by plotting the action function. These visualizations may be used to compare the geometries of different types of fields. Moreover, a new understanding of the energy-momentum of a field emerges.The relativistic dynamics derived here properly describes motion of massive and massless objects under the influence of a gravitational and/or an electromagnetic field, and under the influence of isotropic media.The reader will learn how to compute the precession of Mercury, the deflection of light, and the Shapiro time delay. Also covered is the relativistic motion of binary stars, including the generation of gravitational waves, a derivation of Snell's Law and a relativistic description of spin. We derive a complex-valued prepotential of an electromagnetic field. The prepotential is similar to the wave function in quantum mechanics. The mathematics is accessible to students after standard courses in multivariable calculus and linear algebra. For those unfamiliar with tensors and the calculus of variations, these topics are developed rigorously in the opening chapters. The unifying model presented here should prove useful to upper undergraduate and graduate students, as well as to seasoned researchers.
The Evolution of Society: An Information-Processing Perspective
By Erik W. Aslaksen. 2023
This book covers the work of Erik W. Aslaksen who continues to develop the view of society and its evolution…published in earlier work – The Social Bond (Springer 2018), The Stability of Society (Springer 2020), and Measures of Social Evolution (Springer 2021), bringing together core material of that work with the results of recent investigations in order to present the evolution of society as an integrated and continuous story leading right up to the present time. A story of human action driven by our beliefs, desires, and an ideology arising out of our ability to transform and exploit our environment through the development and application of technology. The distinguishing feature of the work is the treatment of society as an information-processing system and applying the system methodology for handling complexity, as it is applied, e.g., in engineering. This focus on information is particularly pertinent in the current circumstances, where the world has arrived at a critical point in its history through the conjunction of a number of issues that appear to be spiralling out of control: Global warming and the associated climate change, the destruction of our environment through such processes as land clearing and industrialisation with associated loss of biodiversity, the rapidly increasing visibility of the inequality in the quality of life with associated tensions, and above all, the determination of the US-led Western alliance to cling to its hegemonial role, apparently at all cost. With the sophistication and proliferation of nuclear weapons, the latter has the potential to bring on the end of civilisation as we know it. The resolution of any of these issues depends on the information available to all parties involved, and hence, the availability and quality of information is seen as the crucial and overarching issue of the present time. A number of aspects of this issue, including the role of education, economic inequality, and the control of the media, are treated in some detail, and proposals for some small steps in the right direction are put forward.
Artificial Intelligence, Learning and Computation in Economics and Finance (Understanding Complex Systems)
By Ragupathy Venkatachalam. 2023
This book presents frontier research on the use of computational methods to model complex interactions in economics and finance. Artificial…Intelligence, Machine Learning and simulations offer effective means of analyzing and learning from large as well as new types of data. These computational tools have permeated various subfields of economics, finance, and also across different schools of economic thought. Through 16 chapters written by pioneers in economics, finance, computer science, psychology, complexity and statistics/econometrics, the book introduces their original research and presents the findings they have yielded.Theoretical and empirical studies featured in this book draw on a variety of approaches such as agent-based modeling, numerical simulations, computable economics, as well as employing tools from artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms. The use of computational approaches to perform counterfactual thought experiments are also introduced, which help transcend the limits posed by traditional mathematical and statistical tools.The book also includes discussions on methodology, epistemology, history and issues concerning prediction, validation, and inference, all of which have become pertinent with the increasing use of computational approaches in economic analysis.
Showing Time: In Memory of Alberto Argenton
By Ian F. Verstegen, Laura Messina-Argenton, Tiziano Agostini, Tamara Prest. 2022
How does a visual artist manage to narrate a story, which has a sequential and therefore temporal progression, using a…static medium consisting solely of spatial sign elements and, what is more, in a single image? This is the question on which this work is based, posed by its designer, Alberto Argenton, to whose memory it is dedicated. The first explanation usually given by scholars in the field is that the artist solves the problem by depicting the same character in a number of scenes, thus giving indirect evidence of events taking place at different times. This book shows that artists, in addition to the repetition of characters, devise other spatial perceptual-representational strategies for organising the episodes that constitute a story and, therefore, showing time. Resorting to the psychology of art of a Gestalt matrix, the book offers ha formattato: Italiano (Italia) Codice campo modificato ha formattato: Italiano (Italia) ha formattato: Italiano (Italia) researchers, graduates, advanced undergraduates, and professionals a description of a large continuous pictorial narrative repertoire (1000 works) and an in-depth analysis of the perceptual-representational strategies employed by artists from the 6th to the 17th century in a group of 100 works narrating the story of Adam and Eve.
Die eindimensionale Wellengleichung: Mathematische Aspekte im Überblick (essentials)
By Walter Strampp. 2023
Die Wellengleichung besitzt vielseitige Anwendungen und reichhaltige Facetten. Diese müssen jedoch oft mühsam zusammengetragen werden. Mathematische Aspekte der Wellengleichung werden deshalb…in diesem essential in einer Gesamtschau geschildert. Sämtliche mit der Wellengleichung verbundenen Anfangs- und Randwertprobleme werden einbezogen. Klassische Lösungsmethoden mitsamt ihren Querverbindungen werden vorgestellt. Die Methode der charakteristischen Parallelogramme wird durch den Einsatz der Diffenzengleichungen erweitert.