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This book is the first Western-language monograph on the study of the Qingshui River manuscripts. By examining over 3,000 contracts…and other manuscripts, this book offers constructive insights into the long-standing question of how and why a society in late imperial China could maintain a well-functioning social system with few laws but many contracts, i.e., Hobbesian “words without sword.” Three interrelated questions, what contracts were, how and why they worked, are explained successively. Thus, this book presents a non-stereotypical “contract society” in southwest China, arguing that the social order which provides predictability and regularity for economic prosperity could be formed and maintained through contracts even under the condition of relatively weak influence of governmental and legal authorities.This book benefits readers who are interested in law, society, and history. While presenting the socio-legal landscape of a frontier area in late imperial China for historians, this book provides a novel and empirical interpretation of the supposedly well-known contract device for legal researchers, thereby proposing materials for an integrated theoretical explanatory framework of contracts in general. By employing the innovative theory of blockchain in its key argumentation, the book offers a creative interpretation of historical and social phenomena.
By Bernd Herrmann. 2021
Bestattungsritual und Behandlung der Toten sind elementare Merkmale einer Kultur. Eine Gesellschaft gibt sich im Bestattungsritual, in der Behandlung der…Toten und in den Vor- wie Nachbereitungen der Beisetzung über die soziale Identität des Verstorbenen und über den Zusammenhalt der Gemeinschaft Rechenschaft. In der Thanatologie werden mit den Mitteln von Archäologie und Prähistorischer Anthropologie die praxeologischen Zeichen rekonstruiert, soweit sie materielle Spuren im Quellenmaterial und in dessen Umfeld hinterlassen haben. Dargestellt sind die gängigen Überlieferungsformen von menschlichen Überresten und mögliche Zugänge zur Dekodierung der in ihnen wie in den Auffindesituationen enthaltenen Zeichen. Mit Hinweisen zu den erforderlichen erkenntnistheoretischen Erwägungen bietet das essential insgesamt einen thematischen Überblick und Wegweiser.
By Oscar Moro Abadía. 2021
Ontologies of Rock Art is the first publication to explore a wide range of ontological approaches to rock art interpretation,…constituting the basis for groundbreaking studies on Indigenous knowledges, relational metaphysics, and rock imageries. The book contributes to the growing body of research on the ontology of images by focusing on five main topics: ontology as a theoretical framework; the development of new concepts and methods for an ontological approach to rock art; the examination of the relationships between ontology, images, and Indigenous knowledges; the development of relational models for the analysis of rock images; and the impact of ontological approaches on different rock art traditions across the world. Generating new avenues of research in ontological theory, political ontology, and rock art research, this collection will be relevant to archaeologists, anthropologists, and philosophers. In the context of an increasing interest in Indigenous ontologies, the volume will also be of interest to scholars in Indigenous studies.
By Hocine Bougdah, Claudio Gambardella, Claudia Cennamo, Maria Luisa Germanà, Mohd Fairuz Shahidan. 2021
At a time dominated by the disappearance of Future, as claimed by the French anthropologist Marc Augé, Utopia and Religion…seem to be two different ways of giving back an inner horizon to mankind. Therefore this book, on the one hand, considers the importance of utopia as a tool and how it offers an economic and social resource to improve cities’ wealth, future and livability. On the other, it explores the impact of religious and cultural ideals on cities that have recently emerged in this context. Based on numerous observations, the book examines the intellectual legacy of utopian theory and practices across various academic disciplines. It also presents discussions, theories, and case studies addressing a range of issues and topics related to utopia.
By Juan Bautista Belardi, Damián Leandro Bozzuto, Pablo Marcelo Fernández, Enrique Alejandro Moreno, Gustavo Adolfo Neme. 2021
This book presents the state of the art for the studies of strategies and tactics for the procurement of preys…in Argentina in different regions and chronologies (from the end of the Pleistocene until historic moments). The chapters are related to the performance of these practices in hunter-gatherer, shepherd and farmer societies. From the environmental point of view, they show cases in diverse areas such as plains, mountains, forests, sea coast, steppes and puna. Likewise, the range of preys considered includes ungulates (camelids and deer), runner birds (Rhea pennata) and minor prey (mammals and fish). The book is aimed at professionals and students of archaeology interested in the analysis of tactics and strategies for prey capture. Every chapter offers an important contribution in theoretical, methodological and technical terms. In addition, these works possess a high comparative value on study cases of very different chronologies and environments of the Southern hemisphere. This book is a result of the 1st Workshop "Strategies and tactics in order to obtain preys in the past: its discussion from the integration of different lines of evidence" which was conducted in San Rafael, Mendoza, Argentina, between the 8th and 10th of August, 2018.
By Whitney A. Goodwin, Erlend Johnson, Alejandro J. Figueroa. 2020
Southeastern Mesoamerica highlights the diversity and dynamism of the Indigenous groups that inhabited and continue to inhabit the borders of…Southeastern Mesoamerica, an area that includes parts of present-day Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador. Chapters combine archaeological, ethnohistoric, and historic data and approaches to better understand the long-term sociopolitical and cultural changes that occurred throughout the entirety of human occupation of this area. Drawing on archaeological evidence ranging back to the late Pleistocene as well as extensive documentation from the historic period, contributors show how Southeastern Mesoamericans created unique identities, strategically incorporating cosmopolitan influences from cultures to the north and south with their own long-lived traditions. These populations developed autochthonous forms of monumental architecture and routes and methods of exchange and had distinct social, cultural, political, and economic traits. They also established unique long-term human-environment relations that were the result of internal creativity and inspiration influenced by local social and natural trajectories. Southeastern Mesoamerica calls upon archaeologists, anthropologists, historians, ethnohistorians, and others working in Mesoamerica, Central America, and other cultural boundaries around the world to reexamine the role Indigenous resilience and agency play in these areas and in the cultural developments and interactions that occur within them. Contributors: Edy Barrios, Christopher Begley, Walter Burgos, Mauricio Díaz García, William R. Fowler, Rosemary A. Joyce, Gloria Lara-Pinto, Eva L. Martínez, William J. McFarlane, Cameron L. McNeil, Lorena D. Mihok, Pastor Rodolfo Gómez Zúñiga, Timothy Scheffler, Edward Schortman, Russell Sheptak, Miranda Suri, Patricia Urban, Antolín Velásquez, E. Christian Wells
By Allison Mickel. 2020
For more than 200 years, archaeological sites in the Middle East have been dug, sifted, sorted, and saved by local…community members who, in turn, developed immense expertise in excavation and interpretation and had unparalleled insight into the research process and findings—but who have almost never participated in strategies for recording the excavation procedures or results. Their particular perspectives have therefore been missing from the archaeological record, creating an immense gap in knowledge about the ancient past and about how archaeological knowledge is created. Why Those Who Shovel Are Silent is based on six years of in-depth ethnographic work with current and former site workers at two major Middle Eastern archaeological sites—Petra, Jordan, and Çatalhöyük, Turkey—combined with thorough archival research. Author Allison Mickel describes the nature of the knowledge that locally hired archaeological laborers exclusively possess about artifacts, excavation methods, and archaeological interpretation, showing that archaeological workers are experts about a wide range of topics in archaeology. At the same time, Mickel reveals a financial incentive for site workers to pretend to be less knowledgeable than they actually are, as they risk losing their jobs or demotion if they reveal their expertise. Despite a recent proliferation of critical research examining the history and politics of archaeology, the topic of archaeological labor has not yet been substantially examined. Why Those Who Shovel Are Silent employs a range of advanced qualitative, quantitative, and visual approaches and offers recommendations for archaeologists to include more diverse expert perspectives and produce more nuanced knowledge about the past. It will appeal to archaeologists, science studies scholars, and anyone interested in challenging the concept of “unskilled” labor.
By Michael Chazan. 2018
World Prehistory and Archaeology: Pathways through Time, fourth edition, provides an integrated discussion of world prehistory and archaeological methods. This…text emphasizes the relevance of how we know and what we know about our human prehistory. A cornerstone of World Prehistory and Archaeology is the discussion of prehistory as an active process of discovery. Methodological issues are addressed throughout the text to engage readers. Archaeological methods are introduced in the first two chapters. Succeeding chapters then address the question of how we know the past to provide an integrated presentation of prehistory. The fourth edition involves readers in the current state of archaeological research, revealing how archaeologists work and interpret what they find. Through the coverage of various new research, author Michael Chazan shows how archaeology is truly a global discipline.
By Paul Knoepfler, Julie Knoepfler. 2021
Kann man einen Drachen züchten? Kann er dann Feuer spucken und fliegen? Können wir ihm eine eindrucksvolle Größe verleihen? Wie…schlau sollen wir unseren Drachen machen, und können wir ihn trainieren? Wie wahrscheinlich ist es, dass wir bei unserem Versuch, einen Drachen zu bauen, umkommen? Und geht das auch mit Einhörnern?Die Welt begeistert sich seit Jahrhunderten für Drachen und sie haben noch immer einen festen Platz in der Popkultur wie Smaug in „Der kleine Hobbit“ und die Drachen in „Game of Thrones“. Die Leute lieben Drachen und sind neugierig zu erfahren, ob man tatsächlich einen Drachen erschaffen kann. In diesem ungewöhnlichen Buch geht es darum, wie wir mit den allerneuesten wissenschaftlichen Techniken theoretisch einen Drachen erschaffen könnten. Dabei behandeln wir modernste wissenschaftliche Themen wie CRISPR, Biohacking, Stammzellenforschung und Bioengineering. Das Buch steckt voller Fakten, doch der Humor kommt nicht zu kurz, und es regt Leser*innen überdies an, sich Gedanken über den Einfluss von Wissenschaft und Technik auf unsere Gesellschaft zu machen. Unterwegs wirft das Buch einen satirischen Blick auf die Wissenschaft an vorderster Front, die oft in den Medien maßlos gehypt wird. Es diskutiert Schlüsseltechnologien, die ins Spiel kommen, wenn wir uns vorstellen, unsere Idee, einen Drachen zu bauen, in feuerspuckende Realität umzusetzen. Während wir all diese Themen diskutieren, sprechen wir auch über die ethischen Probleme, die sich beim „Bau“ eines Drachens ergeben, und die Möglichkeiten, einen ähnlichen Ansatz zu nutzen, um andere mythische Wesen, wie z.B. ein Einhorn, zu erschaffen. Dieses Buch, das jeden ansprechen sollte, enthält viele eindrucksvolle Illustrationen und andere interessante Abbildungen, darunter Drachendarstellungen, Bilder von Flugsaurierskeletten und vieles mehr.
This book offers global perspectives from Mediterranean, Asian, Australian, and American cultures on sacred sites and their related stories in…regional history. Contemporary society witnesses many travelers visiting sacred sites (temples, mountains, castles, churches, houses) throughout the world. These visits often involve discovery of new historical facts through the origin stories of the associated tribe, region, or nation. The transmission of oral tradition and myth carries on the significant meaning of those religious sites. This volume unveils multi-angle perspectives of symbolic and mystical places. The contributors describe the religio-political experiences of each regional case, and analyze the religiosity of local people as a lens through which readers can re-examine the concept of iconography, syncretism, and materialism. In addition, contributors interpret the growth of new religions as the alternative perspectives of anti-traditional religions. This new approach offers significant insight into comprehending the practical agony and sorrow of regional people in the context of contemporary history.
A unique and wide-ranging introduction to the major prehispanic and colonial societies of Mexico and Central America, featuring new and…revised material throughout Mesoamerican Archaeology: Theory and Practice, Second Edition, provides readers with a diverse and well-balanced view of the archaeology of the indigenous societies of Mexico and Central America, helping students better understand key concepts and engage with contemporary debates and issues within the field. The fully updated second edition incorporates contemporary research that reflects new approaches and trends in Mesoamerican archaeology. New and revised chapters from first-time and returning authors cover the archaeology of Mesoamerican cultural history, from the early Gulf Coast Olmec, to the Classic and Postclassic Maya, to the cultures of Oaxaca and Central Mexico before and after colonization. Presenting a wide range of approaches that illustrate political, socio-economic, and symbolic interpretations, this textbook: Encourages students to consider diverse ways of thinking about Mesoamerica: as a linguistic area, as a geographic region, and as a network of communities of practice Represents a wide spectrum of perspectives and approaches to Mesoamerican archaeology, including coverage of the Postclassic and Colonial periods Enables readers to think critically about how explanations of the past are produced, verified, and debated Includes accessible introductory material to ensure that students and non-specialists understand the chronological and geographic frameworks of the Mesoamerican tradition Discusses recent developments in the contemporary theory and practice of Mesoamerican archaeology Presents new and original research by a team of internationally recognized contributors Mesoamerican Archaeology: Theory and Practice, Second Edition, is ideal for use in undergraduate courses on the archaeology of Mexico and Central America, as well as for broader courses on the archaeology of the Americas.
By Valdimar Tr. Hafstein, Martin Skrydstrup. 2020
With empirical touchstones from Europe, North America, Africa, Asia and the Pacific, the authors argue that heritage and property represent…different approaches to subject formation, produce distinct bodies of expertise, and belong to different rationalities of government in a global patrimonial field: that cultural property is a technology of sovereignty, part of the order of the modern liberal state, but cultural heritage a technology of reformation that cultivates responsible subjects and entangles them in networks of expertise and management. While particular case trajectories may shift back and forth from rights-based claims and resolutions under the sign of cultural property to ethical claims and solutions under the sign of cultural heritage, the authors contend that there is significant analytical purchase to be gained from their distinction. Using a critical, comparative approach, they make the case for a historically grounded and theoretically informed understanding of the difference between the two terms.
By Tony Pollard. 2009
In battle at Culloden Moor on 16 April 1746 the Jacobite cause was dealt a mortal blow. The power of…the Highland clans was broken. And the image of sword-wielding Highlanders charging into a hail of lead delivered by the red-coated battalions of the Hanoverian army has passed into legend. The battle was decisive—it was a turning point in British history. And yet our perception of this critical episode tends to be confused by mistaken, sometimes partisan views of the events on the battlefield. So, what really happened at Culloden? In this fascinating and original book, a team of leading historians and archaeologists reconsiders every aspect of the battle. They examine the latest historical and archaeological evidence, question every assumption, and rewrite the story of the campaign in vivid detail. This is the first time that such a distinguished team of experts has focused on a single British battle. The result is a seminal study of the subject, and it is a landmark publication of battlefield archaeology.
By Dries Daems. 2021
Social Complexity and Complex Systems in Archaeology turns to complex systems thinking in search of a suitable framework to explore…social complexity in Archaeology. Social complexity in archaeology is commonly related to properties of complex societies such as states, as opposed to so-called simple societies such as tribes or chiefdoms. These conceptualisations of complexity are ultimately rooted in Eurocentric perspectives with problematic implications for the field of archaeology. This book provides an in-depth conceptualisation of social complexity as the core concept in archaeological and interdisciplinary studies of the past, integrating approaches from complex systems thinking, archaeological theory, social practice theory, and sustainability and resilience science. The book covers a long-term perspective of social change and stability, tracing the full cycle of complexity trajectories, from emergence and development to collapse, regeneration and transformation of communities and societies. It offers a broad vision on social complexity as a core concept for the present and future development of archaeology. This book is intended to be a valuable resource for students and scholars in the field of archaeology and related disciplines such as history, anthropology, sociology, as well as the natural sciences studying human-environment interactions in the past.
By Simon Mays. 2021
The Archaeology of Human Bones provides an up to date account of the analysis of human skeletal remains from archaeological…sites, introducing students to the anatomy of bones and teeth and the nature of the burial record. Drawing from studies around the world, this book illustrates how the scientific study of human remains can shed light upon important archaeological and historical questions. This new edition reflects the latest developments in scientific techniques and their application to burial archaeology. Current scientific methods are explained, alongside a critical consideration of their strengths and weaknesses. The book has also been thoroughly revised to reflect changes in the ways in which scientific studies of human remains have influenced our understanding of the past, and has been updated to reflect developments in ethical debates that surround the treatment of human remains. There is now a separate chapter devoted to archaeological fieldwork on burial grounds, and the chapters on DNA and ethics have been completely rewritten. This edition of The Archaeology of Human Bones provides not only a more up to date but also a more comprehensive overview of this crucial area of archaeology. Written in a clear style with technical jargon kept to a minimum, it continues to be a key work for archaeology students.
By Sally M. Foster. 1996
A look at Scotland before it was Scotland, with illustrations and photos included: &“An outstanding book.&” —Current Archaeology Early historic…Scotland—from the fifth to the tenth century AD—was home to a variety of diverse peoples and cultures, all competing for land and supremacy. Yet by the eleventh century it had become a single, unified kingdom, known as Alba, under a stable and successful monarchy. How did this happen, and when? At the heart of this mystery lies the extraordinary influence of the Picts and of their neighbors, the Gaels—originally immigrants from Ireland. In this new and revised edition of her acclaimed book, Sally M. Foster establishes the nature of their contribution and, drawing on the latest archaeological evidence and research, highlights numerous themes, including the following: the origins of the Picts and Gaels; the significance of the remarkable Pictish symbols and other early historic sculpture; the art of war and the role of kingship in tribal society; settlement, agriculture, industry and trade; religious beliefs and the impact of Christianity; and how the Picts and Gaels became Scots.
By Tim Clarkson. 2014
The acclaimed medievalist examines the rise and fall of the last kingdom of the North Britons and their influence on…the Anglo-Saxons. During the Viking period, the Kingdom of Strathclyde stretched across what is now southern Scotland and northern England. Also known as Cumbria, its kings ruled from Govan on the outskirts of present-day Glasgow. Shining a spotlight on these North Britons, or &“Cumbrians,&” this volume chronicles their relations with Anglo-Saxon England from the ninth to eleventh centuries AD. In the tenth century, Strathclyde extended its rule southward from Clydesdale to the Solway Firth, bringing their language and culture to a region that had been in English hands for more than two hundred years. They played a key role in the political events of the time, from leading their armies in battle to forging treaties and preserve a fragile peace. The extensive Cumbrian realm was eventually conquered by the Scots, but is still memorialized today by the English county of Cumbria. How this county acquired the name of a long-vanished kingdom centered on the River Clyde is one of the mysteries explored in this book. The story of Strathclyde and the Anglo-Saxons is an important chapter in the saga of England and Scotland as they emerged from the Dark Ages as the countries we know today.
By Tim Clarkson. 2016
A British historian explores the mysterious Scottish culture of the Iron Age and Early Middle Ages whose enigmatic symbols adorn…standing stones. The Picts were an ancient nation who ruled most of northern and eastern Scotland during the Dark Ages. Despite their historical importance, they remain shrouded in myth and misconception. Absorbed by the kingdom of the Scots in the ninth century, they lost their unique identity, their language and their vibrant artistic culture. Among their few surviving traces are standing stones decorated with incredible skill and covered with enigmatic symbols. The Pictish Stones offer some of the few remaining clues to the powerful and gifted people who bequeathed no chronicles to tell the sagas of their kings and heroes. In this book, Medieval historian Tim Clarkson pieces together the evidence to tell the story of this mysterious people from their emergence in Roman times to their eventual disappearance.
By Jenifer Neils, Dylan K. Rogers. 2021
Named for a goddess, epicenter of the first democracy, birthplace of tragic and comic theatre, locus of the major philosophical…schools, artistically in the vanguard for centuries, ancient Athens looms large in contemporary study of the ancient world. This Companion is a comprehensive introduction the city, its topography and monuments, inhabitants and cultural institutions, religious rituals and politics. Chapters link the religious, cultural, and political institutions of Athens to the physical locales in which they took place. Discussion of the urban plan, with its streets, gates, walls, and public and private buildings, provides readers with a thorough understanding of how the city operated and what people saw, heard, smelled, and tasted as they flowed through it. Drawing on the latest scholarship, as well as excavation discoveries at the Agora, sanctuaries, and cemeteries, the Companion explores how the city was planned, how it functioned, and how it was transformed from a democratic polis into a Roman city.
By Annalee Newitz. 2021
A quest to explore some of the most spectacular ancient cities in human history—and figure out why people abandoned them.…In Four Lost Cities, acclaimed science journalist Annalee Newitz takes readers on an entertaining and mind-bending adventure into the deep history of urban life. Investigating across the centuries and around the world, Newitz explores the rise and fall of four ancient cities, each the center of a sophisticated civilization: the Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük in Central Turkey, the Roman vacation town of Pompeii on Italy’s southern coast, the medieval megacity of Angkor in Cambodia, and the indigenous metropolis Cahokia, which stood beside the Mississippi River where East St. Louis is today. Newitz travels to all four sites and investigates the cutting-edge research in archaeology, revealing the mix of environmental changes and political turmoil that doomed these ancient settlements. Tracing the early development of urban planning, Newitz also introduces us to the often anonymous workers—slaves, women, immigrants, and manual laborers—who built these cities and created monuments that lasted millennia. Four Lost Cities is a journey into the forgotten past, but, foreseeing a future in which the majority of people on Earth will be living in cities, it may also reveal something of our own fate.