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By Matthias Finger, Juan Montero. 2021
Cutting through the confusion around the nature and implications of digitalization, this book explores the rise of the new digital…networks, how they affect traditional infrastructure, and how they will eventually need to be regulated. The authors examine how digitalization affects infrastructures in telecommunications, transport, and energy, and how digital platforms establish themselves as a new network on top of and in addition to traditional ones. Complex concepts are introduced through short and colorful stories about the founders of the most popular platforms (Google, Facebook, Skype, Uber, etc.) and how they grew to positions of power, drawing parallels with century-old traditional network industries’ monopoly power (AT&T, General Electric, etc.). The authors argue that these digital platforms strongly interfere with traditional infrastructures that are heavily regulated and provide essential services for society – meaning that digital platforms should be considered as a new and much more powerful type of infrastructure and will require regulation accordingly. A global audience of policy makers, public authorities, consultants, lawyers, students, and academics, as well as anyone with an interest in these digital platforms, will find this book enlightening and essential reading.
IEIS 2020: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Industrial Economics Systems and Industrial Security Engineering
By Menggang Li, Guowei Hua, Xiaopu Shang, Gábor Bohács, Daqing Gong. 2021
This book contains selected papers of the International Conference on Industrial Economics Systems and Industrial Security Engineering (IEIS 2020), which…is co-organized by Beijing Jiaotong University, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, in July 25–28 2020. This book aims to provide new research methods, theories and applications from various areas of industrial economics and engineering. In detail the included scientific papers analyze and describe communication processes in the fields of industrial economics, industrial system, industrial security and engineering and other related areas. The variety of papers delivers added value for both scholars and practitioners.
By Pietro Previtali, Eugenio Salvati. 2021
This book discusses local area planning in the Lombardy region of Italy. The book provides valuable insights about the development…of local welfare systems and the territorial organization of social services through the analysis of the evolution of the Local Area Plan, which lies at the intersection of sub regional governance and of social services delivery models. Using Lombardy as a case study, this brief analyzes the structural conditions influencing the establishment of Local Area Plans, their effect on inter-municipal cooperation, and the need for possible reforms. The book is organized as follows: the first chapter presents a reconstruction of the national and regional framework, analyzing the structure of ties and opportunities within which Local Area Plans are called to act. The second chapter provides a review of the extant literature on Local Area Plans and introduces the theoretical framework used by the volume. The third chapter details legislation introduced in Lombardy to reform the governance structure of Local Area Plans by supporting a process of reorganization and aggregation. The fourth chapter presents some cases of Local Area Plan aggregation. The final chapter presents the conclusion and some brief considerations about the future of social planning. Providing an empirical analysis of local service delivery, this book will be useful to scholars and practitioners interested in public administration, welfare, local government, non-profit and public organizations, and management.
Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 26 (National Bureau of Economic Research Tax Policy and the Economy #26)
By The University of Chicago Press. 2012
There is no question that the US is facing significant fiscal challenges. Tax Policy and the Economy research papers make…valuable contributions to our understanding of the economic effects of alternative approaches. The papers collected in Volume 26 include a study of an important determinant of the labor supply effects of Social Security; an examination of the budgetary and economic impact of changing how employer health insurance is treated in the tax code; an analysis of how US investment in Europe might be impacted by proposed corporate tax reform in the European Union; a look at the term “tax expenditures,” often used to describe governmental policies that show as reduction in taxes rather than as an increase in spending. The final paper in the volume shows how uncertainty about the restoration of US fiscal balance imposes additional efficiency costs on the economy in consumption, saving, labor supply and portfolio decisions, and how it reduces individual welfare.
Tax Policy and the Economy: Volume 32 (National Bureau of Economic Research Tax Policy and the Economy #32)
By The University of Chicago Press. 2018
The six research studies in Volume 32 of Tax Policy and the Economy analyze the U.S. tax and transfer system,…in particular its effects on revenues, expenditures, and economic behavior. First, James Andreoni examines donor advised funds, which are financial vehicles offered by investment houses to provide savings accounts for tax-free charitable giving, and weighs their effects on donations against their tax cost. Second, Caroline Hoxby analyzes the use of tax credits by students enrolled in online post-secondary education. Third, Alex Rees-Jones and Dmitry Taubinsky explore taxpayers’ psychological biases that lead to incorrect perceptions and understanding of tax incentives. Fourth, Jeffrey Clemens and Benedic Ippolito investigate the implications of block grant reforms of Medicaid for receipt of federal support by different states. Fifth, Andrew Samwick examines means-testing of Medicare and federal health benefits under the Affordable Care Act. Sixth, Bruce Meyer and Wallace Mok study the incidence and effects of disability among U.S. women from 1968 to 2015, examining the impacts of disability on income, consumption, and public transfers.
Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 33 (National Bureau of Economic Research Tax Policy and the Economy #33)
By The University of Chicago Press. 2019
This volume presents five new studies on taxation and government transfer programs. Alexander Blocker, Laurence Kotlikoff, Stephen Ross, and Sergio…Villar Vallenas show how asset pricing can be used to value implicit fiscal debts, which are currently rarely measured or adjusted for risk, while accounting for risk properties. They apply their methodology to study Social Security. Michelle Hanson, Jeffrey Hoopes, and Joel Slemrod examine the effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act on corporation behavior and on firms’ statements about their behavior. They focus on for four outcomes: bonuses, investment, share repurchases, and dividends. Scott Baker, Lorenz Kueng, Leslie McGranahan, and Brian Melzer explore whether “unconventional” fiscal policy in the form of pre-announced consumption tax changes can shift durables purchases intertemporally, how it such shifts are affected by consumer credit. Alan Auerbach discusses “tax equivalences,” disparate sets of policies that have the same economic effects, and also illustrates when these equivalences break down. Jeffrey Liebman and Daniel Ramsey use data from NBER’s TAXSIM model to investigate the equity implications of a switch from joint to independent taxation that could occur in conjunction with adoption of return-free tax filing.
Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 34 (National Bureau of Economic Research Tax Policy and the Economy #34)
By The University of Chicago Press. 2020
This volume presents five new studies on current topics in taxation and government spending. Mark Shepard, Katherine Baicker, and Jonathan…Skinner explore implementation aspects of a Medicare-for-All program, which provides a uniform health insurance benefit to everyone, and contrast it with a program providing a basic benefit that can be supplemented voluntarily. John Beshears, James Choi, Mark Iwry, David John, David Laibson, and Brigitte Madrian examine the design and feasibility of firm-sponsored “rainy day funds,” short-term savings accounts for employees that can be used when faced with temporary periods of high expenditure. Robert Barro and Brian Wheaton investigate the impact of taxation on choice of corporate form, on the formation and legal structure of new businesses, and indirectly on productivity in the economy. Jonathan Meer and Benjamin Priday examine the impact of the 2017 federal income tax reform, which reduced marginal tax rates and the incentive for charitable giving, on such giving. Finally, Casey Mulligan analyzes the impact of the Affordable Care Act on whether firms employ fewer than 50 employees, the employment threshold below which they are exempt from the requirement to provide health insurance to their employees.
Innovation Policy and the Economy 2015: Volume 16 (National Bureau of Economic Research Innovation Policy and the Economy)
By The University of Chicago Press. 2016
The papers in the sixteenth volume of the National Bureau of Economic Research’s Innovation Policy and the Economy offer insights…into the changing landscape of innovation by highlighting recent developments in the financing of innovation and entrepreneurship and in the economics of innovation and intellectual property. The first chapter, by Ramana Nanda and Matthew Rhodes-Kropf, explores the process of experimentation in the context of financing of technology start-ups by venture capitalists. The second, by Yael Hochberg, also analyzes the role of entrepreneurial experimentation by systematically examining the rise of start-up accelerators. The third chapter, by Heidi Williams, studies the relationship between the strength of intellectual property rights and innovation. The fourth paper, by Fiona Scott Morton and Carl Shapiro discusses recent changes to the patent system and whether they align the rewards from intellectual property with the marginal contributions made by innovators and other stakeholders. The final chapter, by Karim Lakhani and Kevin Boudreau, focuses on the potential use of field innovation experiments and contests to inform innovation policy and management. Together, these essays continue to highlight the importance of economic theory and empirical analysis in innovation policy research.
Innovation Policy and the Economy, 2019: Volume 20 (National Bureau of Economic Research Innovation Policy and the Economy)
By The University of Chicago Press. 2020
The chapters in this twentieth volume of Innovation Policy and the Economy present research on the interactions among public policy,…the innovation process, and the economy. One explores changes in the ability of the U.S. to attract talented foreign workers and the role of sponsoring institutions in shaping immigration policy. Another explains how the division of innovative labor between research universities and corporate labs affected productivity growth and the transformation of knowledge into new products and processes. A third reviews different innovation policies and their performance in the pharmaceutical sector. Next is a chapter on the effects of competition policy on innovation, “creative destruction,” and economic growth. A fifth chapter studies how experimental policy design can be a cost-effective way to attain program goals. The last chapter examines geographic disparities in innovation, joblessness, and technological dynamism and studies how reallocation of grants and geographically targeted entrepreneurship policy could affect labor supply and welfare.
Innovation Policy and the Economy, 2018: Volume 19 (National Bureau of Economic Research Innovation Policy and the Economy #19)
By The University of Chicago Press. 2019
This volume highlights the interaction between public policy and innovation. The first chapter documents the dramatic globalization of R&D and…how this development has affected the efforts of U.S. multinationals to operate on the global technology frontier. The next chapter synthesizes research on the impact of trade shocks on innovation and explains how these shocks’ effects depend on the firms, industries, and countries affected. The third chapter examines the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) model of research management—an approach to funding and managing high-risk R&D—and offers a method for diagnosing which research efforts are “ARPA-able.” Next is a study of the Orphan Drug Act and the key changes in the U.S. healthcare landscape and in drug discovery and development since its passage in 1983. The next two chapters focus on artificial intelligence (AI). One describes how AI diffuses through the economy and discusses implications for economic inequality, antitrust, and intellectual property. The other investigates issues surrounding firm competition and labor force participation, such as data portability and a Universal Basic Income, and evaluates ways to address these issues.
Growth and International Trade: An Introduction to the Overlapping Generations Approach (Springer Texts in Business and Economics)
By Karl Farmer, Matthias Schelnast. 2021
Revised and updated for the 2nd edition, this textbook guides the reader towards various aspects of growth and international trade…in a Diamond-type overlapping generations framework. Using the same model type throughout the book, timely topics such as growth with bubbles, robots and involuntary unemployment, financial integration and house price dynamics, policies to mitigate climate change and the persistence of religion in a globalized market economy are explored.The first part starts from the “old” growth theory and bridges to the “new” growth theory (including R&D and human capital approaches). The second part presents an intertemporal equilibrium theory of inter- and intra-sectoral trade, investigates innovation, growth and trade and limits to public debt as well as nationally and internationally optimal climate policies. The debt dynamics of the Euro Zone and the origins of intra-EMU and Asian-US trade imbalances are also explored.The book is primarily addressed to upper undergraduate and graduate students wishing to proceed to the analytically more demanding journal literature.
By Marc Fleurbaey, Maurice Salles. 2021
This volume presents interviews that have been conducted from the 1980s to the present with important scholars of social choice…and welfare theory. Starting with a brief history of social choice and welfare theory written by the book editors, it features 15 conversations with four Nobel Laureates and other key scholars in the discipline. The volume is divided into two parts. The first part presents four conversations with the founding fathers of modern social choice and welfare theory: Kenneth Arrow, John Harsanyi, Paul Samuelson, and Amartya Sen. The second part includes conversations with scholars who made important contributions to the discipline from the early 1970s onwards. This book will appeal to anyone interested in the history of economics, and the history of social choice and welfare theory in particular.
By Susan Solovic, Ray Manley. 2018
Want to stay competitive? Keep evolving.Solid profits, a strong brand, steady customers — all of these can vanish when market…shifts disrupt business as usual. So how do you keep from losing ground? How do you stay a step ahead of competitors?The solution is surprisingly straightforward: innovate tweak by tweak. By making incremental adjustments to every aspect of the business — marketing, customer service, finances, products, people — then repeating the process, fixing weaknesses and spotting opportunities becomes a winning habit.Entrepreneur Susan Solovic, an expert in business survival tactics, explains how to continually grow, improve, and move the business forward. With hundreds of strategies, examples, and a six-step process, The One-Percent Edge explains how to:Put energy into profitable areas and trim dead weightRaise prices by selling value instead of thingsAccess new markets by adapting products or servicesHire the right team playersTurn customers into brand ambassadorsFind your own niche and avoid imitatingAnd moreWhen change happens swiftly and often, even successful brands are vulnerable. Businesses with the edge are constantly evolving . . . and pulling ahead of the pack.
By Amy Kates, Jay Galbraith, Diane Downey. 2001
Which business structures are best suited to the unpredictable 21st century? How can a company, division, or department reconfigure itself…with minimum disruption and maximum impact? Every executive grapples with problems of restructuring--and most need hands-on guidance to solve them. This eye-opening book shows business leaders at all levels how to examine their choices by leading them systematically through these fundamental questions: * Should we restructure to meet our strategic goals? * What are the best structural options to achieve our success? * What lateral processes are necessary to support the new structure? * How do we staff the restructured organization to optimize results? Based on Galbraith's world-renowned approach, this guide includes examples and worksheets that pilot readers through the essential steps of organizational design.
Managing government employees presents unique challenges. Government managers may feel that stringent and convoluted regulations mean they "can't do that".…Some others may use that perception as a crutch. But the truth for all of them is, yes, they can "do that" -- and they'd better. "That" means managing employees as proactively and decisively as their corporate counterparts, and holding their staffs, teams, and departments accountable for productivity and results. Managing Government Employees offers dozens of techniques for meeting the challenges and stressful situations supervisers face on a daily basis. Major topics include how to: * get maximum dedication and productivity from employees * improve results of poor performers and discipline or fire them when necessary * deal with union and EEO issues * cut through the red tape of government employment systems For managers frustrated by government bureaucracy, this book lets them know they have more power than they may think.
By Richard Baldwin. 2018
'A manifesto for future-proofing our jobs and prosperity' THE SUNDAY TIMESWe stand on the edge of a new era that…will bring change to our world on a par with the Industrial Revolution. Automation, artificial intelligence and robotics are changing our lives quickly - but digital disruption goes much further than we realize. Richard Baldwin, one of the world's leading globalization experts, argues that the inhuman speed of this transformation threatens to overwhelm our capacity to adapt. But while the changes are now inevitable, there are strategies that humanity can use to adapt to this new world, employing the indispensable skills that no machine can copy: creativity and independent thought. THE GLOBOTICS UPHEAVAL will help each of us prepare for the oncoming wave of the advanced robotic workforce.
By Joshua Yaffa. 2020
From a leading journalist in Moscow and correspondent for The New Yorker, a groundbreaking portrait of modern Russia and the inner struggles…of the people who sustain Vladimir Putin&’s rule In this rich and novelistic tour of contemporary Russia, Joshua Yaffa introduces readers to some of the country&’s most remarkable figures—from politicians and entrepreneurs to artists and historians—who have built their careers and constructed their identities in the shadow of the Putin system. Torn between their own ambitions and the omnipresent demands of the state, each walks an individual path of compromise. Some muster cunning and cynicism to extract all manner of benefits and privileges from those in power. Others, finding themselves to be less adept, are left broken and demoralized. What binds them together is the tangled web of dilemmas and contradictions they face. Between Two Fires chronicles the lives of a number of strivers who understand that their dreams are best—or only—realized through varying degrees of cooperation with the Russian government. With sensitivity and depth, Yaffa profiles the director of the country&’s main television channel, an Orthodox priest at war with the church hierarchy, a Chechen humanitarian who turns a blind eye to persecutions, and many others. The result is an intimate and probing portrait of a nation that is much discussed yet little understood. By showing how citizens shape their lives around the demands of a capricious and oftentimes repressive state—as often by choice as under threat of force— Yaffa offers urgent lessons about the true nature of modern authoritarianism.
By Joan Lisa Bromberg. 1999
A timely exploration of the relationships between NASA and the private sector: “An interesting read.” —SpaceflightFew federal agencies have more…extensive ties to the private sector than NASA. NASA’s relationships with its many aerospace industry suppliers of rocket engines, computers, electronics, gauges, valves, O-rings, and other materials have often been described as “partnerships.” These have produced a few memorable catastrophes, but mostly technical achievements of the highest order. Until now, no one has written extensively about them.In NASA and the Space Industry, Joan Lisa Bromberg explores how NASA’s relationship with the private sector developed and how it works. She outlines the various kinds of expertise public and private sectors brought to the tasks NASA took on, describing how this division of labor changed over time. She explains why NASA sometimes encouraged and sometimes thwarted the privatization of space projects and describes the agency’s role in the rise of such new space industries as launch vehicles and communications satellites.
By Charles C. Euchner. 1993
“Details how owners . . . have shamelessly played cities against one another to get sweetheart deals for their stadiums.” —Sports IllustratedCan…a sports franchise “blackmail” a city into getting what it wants—a new stadium, say, or favorable leasing terms—by threatening to relocate? In 1982, the owners of the Chicago White Sox pledged to keep the team in Chicago if the city approved a $5-million tax-exempt bond to finance construction of luxury suites at Comiskey Park. The city council approved it. A few years later, when Comiskey Park was in need of renovation, the owners threatened to move the team to Florida unless a new stadium was built. A site was chosen near the old stadium, property condemned, residents evicted, and a new stadium built. “We had to make threats,” the owners said. “If we didn't have the threat of moving, we wouldn’t have gotten the deal.”Sports is not a dominant industry in any city, this book points out, yet it receives the kind of attention one might expect to be lavished on major producers and employers. In Playing the Field, Charles Euchner examines the relationships between Los Angeles and the Raiders, Baltimore and the Colts and the Orioles, and Chicago and the White Sox, arguing that, in the absence of public standards for equitable arbitration between cities and teams, the sports industry has the ability to steer negotiations in a way that leaves cities vulnerable. He reveals what lies behind this leverage—and what that says about the urban political process.
By Matthew P. Drennan. 2002
Data on how cities have adapted to changing times: &“An excellent analysis of the rise and role of the information…sector . . . in regional economic development.&” — Regional Science and Urban Economics How do metropolitan regions remain prosperous and competitive in a rapidly changing economy? Using hard data, Matthew Drennan shows that those regions that have invested heavily in the information economy have done much better than those that continue to rely on manufacturing and industry as their base. Moreover, he contends, the benefits of that growth reach the urban working poor, earlier reports to the contrary notwithstanding. The Information Economy and American Cities provides a wealth of rigorously analyzed econometric data of great value to economists, planners, and policymakers concerned with the future of America&’s metropolitan areas, and provides the kind of hard evidence needed to advocate effectively for change.</