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The Progressives—those reformers responsible for the shape of many American institutions, from the Federal Reserve Board to the New School… for Social Research—have always presented a mystery. What prompted middle-class citizens to support fundamental change in American life? Eric Rauchway shows that like most of us, the reformers took their inspiration from their own lives—from the challenges of forming a family.Following the lives and careers of Charles and Mary Beard, Wesley Clair and Lucy Sprague Mitchell, and Willard and Dorothy Straight, the book moves from the plains of the Midwest to the plains of Manchuria, from the trade-union halls of industrial Britain to the editorial offices of the New Republic in Manhattan. Rauchway argues that parenting was a kind of elitism that fulfilled itself when it undid itself, and this vision of familial responsibility underlay Progressive approaches to foreign policy, economics, social policy, and education.
The 1944 Bretton Woods conference created new institutions for international economic governance. Though flawed, the system led to a golden… age in postwar reconstruction, sustained economic growth, job creation, and postcolonial development. Yet financial liberalization since the 1970s has involved deregulation and globalization, which have exacerbated instability, rather than sustained growth. In addition, the failure of Bretton Woods to provide a reserve currency enabled the dollar to fill the void, which has contributed to periodic, massive U.S. trade deficits. Our latest global financial crisis, in which all these weaknesses played a part, underscores how urgently we must reform the international financial system. Prepared for the G24 research program, a consortium of developing countries focused on financial issues, this volume argues that such reforms must be developmental. Chapters review historical trends in global liquidity, financial flows to emerging markets, and the food crisis, identifying the systemic flaws that contributed to the recent downturn. They challenge the effectiveness of recent policy and suggest criteria for regulatory reform, keeping in mind the different circumstances, capacities, and capabilities of various economies. Essays follow ongoing revisions in international banking standards, the improved management of international capital flows, the critical role of the World Trade Organization in liberalizing and globalizing financial services, and the need for international tax cooperation. They also propose new global banking and reserve currency arrangements.
Even well-established democracies need reform, and any successful effort to reform democracies must look beyond conventional institutions—elections, political parties, special… interests, legislatures and their relations with chief executives—to do so. Expanding a traditional vision of the institutions of representative democracy, Douglas A. Chalmers examines six aspects of political practice relating to the people being represented, the structure of those who make law and policy, and the links between those structures and the people. Chalmers concludes with a discussion of where successful reform needs to take place: we must pay attention to a democratic ordering of the constant reconfiguration of decision making patterns; we must recognize the crucial role of information in deliberation; and we must incorporate noncitizens and foreigners into the political system, even when they are not the principal beneficiaries.
By Michael Thom. 2021
Conventional wisdom dictates that those goods which are said to cause harm or impose costs on society deserve a special… tax. For centuries, governments have levied these "sin taxes" on alcohol and tobacco, but the list of taxable sins has now grown to include soda and marijuana, with calls to impose further taxes on plastic bags, meat, and even robots and carbon. Contrary to what experts and policymakers tell us, many of these alleged sins impose very little, if any, cost on society, and the harms that do exist can be minimized without resorting to tax. What follows in this book is a discussion of four case studies—on tobacco, marijuana, alcohol and soda—which make the case against the conventional wisdom in taxing these "sins", before concluding that when it comes to taxing sin, it is time for governments to forgive—and forget.
By Mareike Kleine. 2014
The European Union is the world’s most advanced international organization, presiding over a level of legal and economic integration unmatched… in global politics. To explain this achievement, many observers point to its formal rules that entail strong obligations and delegate substantial power to supranational actors such as the European Commission. This legalistic view, Mareike Kleine contends, is misleading. More often than not, governments and bureaucrats informally depart from the formal rules and thereby contradict their very purpose. Behind the EU’s front of formal rules lies a thick network of informal governance practices.If not the EU’s rules, what accounts for the high level of economic integration among its members? How does the EU really work? In answering these questions, Kleine proposes a new way of thinking about international organizations. Informal governance affords governments the flexibility to resolve conflicts that adherence to EU rules may generate at the domestic level. By dispersing the costs that integration may impose on individual groups, it allows governments to keep domestic interests aligned in favor of European integration. The combination of formal rules and informal governance therefore sustains a level of cooperation that neither regime alone permits, and it reduces the EU’s democratic deficit by including those interests into deliberations that are most immediately affected by its decisions. In illustrating informal norms and testing how they work, Kleine provides the first systematic analysis, based on new material from national and European archives and other primary data, of the parallel development of the formal rules and informal norms that have governed the EU from the 1958 Treaty of Rome until today.
By Sabina Henneberg. 2020
Examining the factors that shaped the first interim governments of Tunisia and Libya, which formed in the immediate aftermath of… the 2011 uprisings that brought down their governments, Managing Transition analyses each interim government to enhance our understanding of how political transition occurred within two North African countries. Tracing the importance of the key decisions made during these transition periods, Sabina Henneberg demonstrates the importance of these decisions taken during the short phase between authoritarian collapse and first post-uprising elections, including decisions around leadership, institutional reform, transitional justice, and the electoral processes themselves. By documenting, in close detail, the important events of the 2011 Arab Uprisings, and the months that followed, this study shows that while pre-existing structures strongly influence the design and behaviour of first interim governments, actors' choices are equally important in shaping both immediate and longer-term phases of transition.
The aim of this Element is to foreground Native American conceptions of sovereignty and power in order to refine the… place of settler colonialism in American colonial and early republican history. It argues that Indigenous concepts of sovereignty were rooted in complex metaphorical language, in historical understandings of alliance, and in mobility in a landscape of layered interconnections of power. Where some versions of the interpretive paradigm of settler colonialism emphasise the violent 'elimination of the native', this work reveals that diplomatic transactions between the Iroquois Confederacy and British colonial and imperial agents reveal a hybrid language of alliance, sovereignty and territory. These languages and concepts of inter-cultural diplomacy provide contexts that suggest a more nuanced and dynamic relationship between colonialism and Indigenous power.
This book examines the relationship between the EU investor protection regulations enshrined in MiFID and MiFID II and national contract… and torts law. It describes how the effect of the conduct of business rules as implemented in national financial supervision legislation in private law extends to the issue of enforcement, and critically assesses this interaction from the perspective of EU law. In particular, the conclusions identified in the book will deepen readers’ understanding of the interplay between the conduct of business rules and private law norms governing a firm’s liability to pay damages, such as duty of care, attributability of damage, causation, contributory negligence and limitation. In turn, the book identifies the subordination and the complementarity model to conceptualise the interaction between the conduct of business rules and private law norms. Moreover, the book challenges the view that civil courts are – or should be – forced to give private law effects to violation of the MiFID and MiFID II conduct of business rules in line with the subordination model. Instead, the complementarity model is advanced as the preferred approach to this interaction in view of what MiFID and MiFID II require from Member States in terms of their implementation, as well as the desirability of each model. This model presupposes that courts should consider the conduct of business rules when adjudicating individual disputes, while preserving the autonomy of private law norms governing liability of investment firms towards clients. Based on analysis of case law of courts in Germany, the Netherlands and England & Wales, as well as scholarly literature, the book also compares the available causes of action, the conditions of liability and the obstacles investors face when claiming damages, as well as how and the extent to which investors can benefit from the conduct of business rules in clearing these obstacles. In so doing, under the approach adopted by national courts to the interplay between the conduct of business rules of EU origin and private law, the book shows how investors can benefit from the influence of these rules on private law norms. In closing, it demonstrates a hybridisation of private law remedies resulting from the accommodation of the conduct of business rules into the private law discourse according to the complementarity model, illustrating how judicial enforcement through private law means may contribute to investor protection.
By Leanne M. Kelly. 2021
Research on evaluation shows that low-use and non-use of evaluation is common, yet evaluation is hailed as beneficial and worthwhile.… The worth of evaluation is tied to its utilisation, presenting a paradox if evaluation is both revered and underutilised. This book investigates this paradox in the under-researched context of small development non-profit organisations, which have specific resource constraints and ‘bottom up’ community development values that complicate their ability to do and use evaluation in line with top down directives. The book examines the utility, meaningfulness, and purpose of evaluation from small non-profit perspectives, and explores whether evaluation has value for these organisations. For development practice, it presents evaluative alternatives that reconceptualise evaluation as part of the active process of development rather than as an interval-based add-on. For evaluation theory, it highlights a historical preoccupation with improving evaluation without assessing its inherent worth, and considers alternative ways to enhance the value of evaluation for small non-profits.
Migration and Social Protection in Europe and Beyond: Comparing Access to Welfare Entitlements (IMISCOE Research Series)
By Jean-Michel Lafleur, Daniela Vintila. 2020
This first open access book in a series of three volumes provides an in-depth analysis of social protection policies that… EU Member States make accessible to resident nationals, non-resident nationals and non-national residents. In doing so, it discusses different scenarios in which the interplay between nationality and residence could lead to inequalities of access to welfare. Each chapter maps the eligibility conditions for accessing social benefits, by paying particular attention to the social entitlements that migrants can claim in host countries and/or export from home countries. The book also identifies and compares recent trends of access to welfare entitlements across five policy areas: health care, unemployment, family benefits, pensions, and guaranteed minimum resources. As such this book is a valuable read to researchers, policy makers, government employees and NGO’s.
Kaplan's AP U.S. Government & Politics 2021 & 2022 is revised to align with the 2021 AP exam. This edition… features pre-chapter assessments to help you review efficiently, lots of practice questions in the book and even more online, 3 full-length practice tests, complete explanations for every question, and a concise review of the most-tested content to quickly build your skills and confidence. "Rapid" and "Comprehensive" content review sections allow you to choose the amount of prep you need for each topic tested. With bite-sized, test-like practice sets, expert strategies, and customizable study plans, our guide fits your schedule whether you need targeted prep or comprehensive review. We&’re so confident that AP U.S. Government & Politics offers the guidance you need that we guarantee it: After studying with our online resources and book, you&’ll score higher on the exam—or you'll get your money back. The College Board has announced that there are May 2021 test dates available are May 3-7 and May 10-14, 2021. To access your online resources, go to kaptest.com/moreonline and follow the directions. You'll need your book handy to complete the process.Personalized Prep. Realistic Practice. 3 full-length practice exams with comprehensive explanations and an online test scoring tool to convert your raw score into a 1–5 scaled scorePre- and post-quizzes in each chapter so you can monitor your progress and study exactly what you needCustomizable study plans tailored to your individual goals and prep timeOnline quizzes for additional practice ·Focused content review on the essential concepts to help you make the most of your study timeTest-taking strategies designed specifically for AP U.S. Government & PoliticsExpert Guidance We know the test—our AP experts make sure our practice questions and study materials are true to the examWe know students—every explanation is written to help you learn, and our tips on the exam structure and question formats will help you avoid surprises on Test DayWe invented test prep—Kaplan (kaptest.com) has been helping students for 80 years, and more than 95% of our students get into their top-choice schools
By Peter Cole. 2007
In the early twentieth century, when many US unions disgracefully excluded black and Asian workers, the Industrial Workers of the… World (IWW) warmly welcomed people of color, in keeping with their emphasis on class solidarity and their bold motto: "An Injury to One Is an Injury to All!" Ben Fletcher: The Life and Times of a Black Wobbly tells the story of one of the greatest heroes of the American working class. A brilliant union organizer and a humorous orator, Benjamin Fletcher (1890–1949) was a tremendously important and well-loved African American member of the IWW during its heyday. Fletcher helped found and lead Local 8 of the IWW's Marine Transport Workers Industrial Union, unquestionably the most powerful interracial union of its era, taking a principled stand against all forms of xenophobia and exclusion. For years, acclaimed historian Peter Cole has carefully researched the life of Ben Fletcher, painstakingly uncovering a stunning range of documents related to this extraordinary man. It includes a detailed biographical sketch of his life and history, reminiscences by fellow workers who knew him, a chronicle of the IWW's impressive decade-long run on the Philadelphia waterfront in which Fletcher played a pivotal role, and nearly all of his known writings and speeches, thus giving Fletcher's timeless voice another opportunity to inspire a new generation of workers, organizers, and agitators. This revised and expanded second edition includes new materials such as facsimile reprints of two extremely rare pamphlets on racism from the early twentieth century, more information on his prison years and personal life, additional recollections from friends, greater consideration of Fletcher from a global perspective, and much more.
By Alan Gelb, Inderjit Singh, Joseph C. Brada, Saul Estrin. 1996
This volume presents cases from a World Bank study of state-owned industrial firms in Poland, Hungary and the Czech and… Slovak republics. Topics that are covered include: structure of the industry; history of the firm; and product mix and sales pattern.
By Ijeoma Oluo. 2020
From the author of the New York Times bestseller So You Want to Talk About Race, a subversive history of… white male American identity.What happens to a country that tells generation after generation of white men that they deserve power? What happens when success is defined by status over women and people of color, instead of by actual accomplishments?Through the last 150 years of American history -- from the post-reconstruction South and the mythic stories of cowboys in the West, to the present-day controversy over NFL protests and the backlash against the rise of women in politics -- Ijeoma Oluo exposes the devastating consequences of white male supremacy on women, people of color, and white men themselves. Mediocre investigates the real costs of this phenomenon in order to imagine a new white male identity, one free from racism and sexism.As provocative as it is essential, this book will upend everything you thought you knew about American identity and offers a bold new vision of American greatness.
Migration and Social Protection in Europe and Beyond: Comparing Consular Services and Diaspora Policies (IMISCOE Research Series)
By Jean-Michel Lafleur, Daniela Vintila. 2020
This second open access book in a series of three volumes examines the repertoire of policies and programmes led by… EU Member States to engage with their nationals residing abroad. Focusing on sending states’ engagement in the area of social protection, this book shows how a series of emigration-related policies that go beyond the realm of social security address the needs of nationals abroad in the area of health care, unemployment, family benefits, pensions and economic hardship. In addition, this volume highlights the variety of sending states’ institutions that are involved in these policies (consulates, diaspora institutions, ministries, agencies…) and their engagement with citizens abroad in other policy areas such as electoral rights, citizenship, language, culture, education, business or religion. As such this book is a valuable read to researchers, policy makers, government employees and NGO’s.
By Rahul A. Sirohi, Samyukta Bhupatiraju. 2021
This book evaluates the record of the Left in Brazil and Venezuela, two key cases of the “pink tide” wave.… The wave of Left governments that emerged across Latin America in the early 2000s – a process dubbed the “pink tide” – has been on the wane in recent years. The Left regimes that, at one point, seemed unbeatable have either been defeated at the ballot, ousted through coups or have had to contend with increasing economic and political conflicts which have nullified many of their achievements. This book argues – like many voices on the Left today – that the waning of the “pink tide” in the region must be viewed in the context of the Left’s inability to initiate radical structural changes in its constituencies. At the same time, however, the book makes the case for a more nuanced and balanced evaluation of the development record of the Left than is often done. In doing so, it seeks to go beyond the reform–revolution binary that has blinkered recent assessments and intends to highlight alternative paths that the Left could have taken.
By Marcos Buscaglia. 2020
Marcos Buscaglia analiza en detalle la peor crisis de la historia argentina (2018-2020) y propone un conjunto articulado y sólido… de reformas para que el país encuentre su rumbo y comience a emerger del subdesarrollo dando lugar a una nueva república, superadora de la conservadora y de la peronista. La Argentina atraviesa el peor momento de su historia al tiempo que los argentinos, que parecemos capaces de naturalizarlo todo, sin objetivos ni aspiraciones comunes, empezamos a desdibujar nuestra identidad como sociedad. Marcos Buscaglia describe aquí, con detalle y profundidad inéditos, la crisis 2018-2020, pero va mucho más allá: presenta una visión, un camino para empezar a emerger. La salida tiene que ver con la economía y con la política, claro, pero también con la ciudadanía y la cultura porque, en última instancia, de lo que se trata es de valores. Poco piadoso y preciso en el reconocimiento de nuestras inconsistencias, valiente y sólido en el enunciado de las reformas necesarias, entusiasta y esperanzado en el potencial argentino, este libro propone la construcción de una nueva república, superadora tanto de la conservadora como de la peronista. El mensaje es claro: con vocación de futuro y voluntad de éxito, si los argentinos nos ponemos de acuerdo sobre el rumbo, no habrá obstáculo difícil de sortear. Porque no podemos permitir que nos gane el caos, conforme empecemos a andar, iremos dejando en el pasado nuestra historia de desencuentro y fracaso recurrentes. Entonces sí, finalmente, estaremos emergiendo.
By José Luis Espert, Luis Alberto Rosales. 2020
Este libro demuestra cómo el Sistema nos devora y ofrece un camino alternativo para salir adelante tras la crisis que… la pandemia terminó de desnudar. Espert y Rosales observan que quienes están ubicados en ambos lados de la grieta se sienten cómodos y no se atreven a sumergirse en una travesía de salvación. Espert y Rosales observan que quienes están ubicados en ambos lados de la grieta se sienten cómodos y no se atreven a sumergirse en una travesía de salvación. Pero la Argentina es una sociedad muy lastimada y es urgente encontrar la puerta de salida y animarse a abrirla. Por eso recorren y señalan los errores de las medidas tomadas por los últimos dos gobiernos y proponen lo que nunca se intentó por el terror instalado en tantos años de discurso dirigido.
By Patricia Bullrich. 2020
Patricia Bullrich, ministra de Seguridad del gobierno de Mauricio Macri, cuenta en primera persona los desafíos más importantes que enfrentó… en su gestión y brinda su visión sobre la seguridad en la Argentina al tiempo que defiende a la ley y el orden, y a los encargados de hacerla cumplir y mantenerlo, como reaseguros de la democracia. El 10 de diciembre de 2015 Patricia Bullrich, por entonces reconocida por sus posiciones firmes contra la delincuencia, se hizo cargo del Ministerio de Seguridad de la Nación por pedido del presidente electo Mauricio Macri. Ya en funciones, su lucha frontal contra el crimen organizado y su tenaz defensa del papel institucional de las fuerzas de seguridad federales, le valieron el reconocimiento de amplios sectores de la población y, al mismo tiempo, el embate de núcleos radicalizados de organizaciones de derechos humanos y de sectores de opinión autodenominados garantistas. En este libro, Bullrich presenta por primera vez al gran público los desafíos que tuvo que enfrentar en su gestión, y lo hace desde dos perspectivas aunadas: una, estratégica, asociada a la ejecución de política pública propia de su función; la otra, más personal y humana, expresada en infinidad de anécdotas cotidianas. En ese doble registro, estas páginas se ocupan de problemas que van del narcotráfico y el terrorismo a casos como el de la muerte de Santiago Maldonado y la seguridad de la Cumbre del G-20, pasando por las fronteras "calientes" de nuestro país, la presencia policial en las calles y el protocolo de uso de armas por parte de las fuerzas de seguridad. Testimonio indispensable en tiempos en que millones de argentinos claman por seguridad, Guerra sin cuartel es también una defensa valiente y apasionada del valor de la ley y el orden en democracia. «Como ministra de Seguridad de la República Argentina he debido librar una guerra contra el crimen organizado y sus cómplices en la política y en ciertas organizaciones de la sociedad civil; 'sin cuartel' porque no tuve un solo día de tregua y también porque los ataques provenían de los más diversos ángulos, sin una trinchera visible. A pesar de todo, estoy convencida de haber contribuido a devolver el respeto a la ley y a quienes están a cargo de hacerla cumplir en la Argentina».Patricia Bullrich
By J. Daniel Elam. 2021
World Literature for the Wretched of the Earth recovers a genealogy of anticolonial thought that advocated collective inexpertise, unknowing, and… unrecognizability. Early-twentieth-century anticolonial thinkers endeavored to imagine a world emancipated from colonial rule, but it was a world they knew they would likely not live to see. Written in exile, in abjection, or in the face of death, anticolonial thought could not afford to base its politics on the hope of eventual success, mastery, or national sovereignty. J. Daniel Elam shows how anticolonial thinkers theorized inconsequential practices of egalitarianism in the service of an impossibility: a world without colonialism. Framed by a suggestive reading of the surprising affinities between Frantz Fanon’s political writings and Erich Auerbach’s philological project, World Literature for the Wretched of the Earth foregrounds anticolonial theories of reading and critique in the writing of Lala Har Dayal, B. R. Ambedkar, M. K. Gandhi, and Bhagat Singh. These anticolonial activists theorized reading not as a way to cultivate mastery and expertise but as a way, rather, to disavow mastery altogether. To become or remain an inexpert reader, divesting oneself of authorial claims, was to fundamentally challenge the logic of the British Empire and European fascism, which prized self-mastery, authority, and national sovereignty. Bringing together the histories of comparative literature and anticolonial thought, Elam demonstrates how these early-twentieth-century theories of reading force us to reconsider the commitments of humanistic critique and egalitarian politics in the still-colonial present.